Object List

This page displays all the objects that have been scraped so far. Try a search too...


333 objects in total


Wall adjoining Adel Mill Farm.

7th December 1933. Photograph of bulging wall adjoining Adel Mill Farm.

» Date: 1933
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Hopewell Terrace, houses and shop

Undated. 10-12 Hopewell Terrace looking north, showing part of shop with advertising hoardings.

» Date: http://www.leodis.net/imagesLeodis/screen/93/93.jpg
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» Language: en

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Acorn Street and Great Garden Street looking SW.

Undated.

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» Language: en

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Wooden figure of Lydia Lopokova

The figure represents Lydia Lopokova as Columbine in Mikhail Fokine's ballet Carnaval, premiered in 1910. It was made by the Aldon Studios for the dance historian, bookseller and publisher, Cyril Beaumont, for sale in his shop at 75 Charing Cross Road. Lopokova danced Columbine when the ballet was first given in Europe in 1910 and danced the role frequently in London during the Diaghilev Ballets Russes seasons in 1918 and 1919. Beaumont had admired Caran d'Ache's satirical wood carvings of political personalities, and, about 1914, he conceived the idea of two-dimensional wooden figures of principal dancers of the Diaghilev Ballets Russes. The figures represented the dancers in costume in a typical pose from the chosen work; they were cut out from two-ply wood, hand painted and mounted on detachable stands. Each design was limited to 50 copies, originally hand-coloured by the artist and issued at 7s 6d. They sold steadily. Adrian Allinson designed 19 figures in all and after World War I, Beaumont turned to other artists and commissioned a separate artist to execute the colouring.

» Date: 1920s (Made)

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Fulham Street

14th October 1949. Road in the foreground is Flaxton Terrace, showing space where houses once were. In the background can be seen houses on Fulham Street, with a perambulator outside one of the doors.

» Date: 1949
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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City Square, aerial view

9th October 1937. Aerial view of City Square. In the foregound are some trams. The Black Prince can be seen in centre view. The Post Office is to the left and Park Row can be seen to the right.

» Date: 1937
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Y Bwthyn Bach

This dolls' house was made in the 1930s by Lines Bros of Merton, Surrey. It is a model of the Welsh cottage style playhouse which was presented to Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth 11) on her sixth birthday in 1932 by the people of Wales. The original 'Y Bwthyn Bach' now stands in the grounds of Windsor Castle. The cottage was used to raise funds for children's hospital charities before the Princess was allowed to play with it. It has four rooms including a kitchen and bathroom fully equipped with working appliances. Princess Elizabeth and her sister, Princess Margaret, loved to give parties in the cottage. Few children had such a large house to play in but this dolls' house version cost 56/- (£2.80) which many parents could afford.

» Date: 1933-1935 (made)

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Low Road, rear of Highgate Street

25th September 1929.View of the rear of terraced housing on Highgate Street in the Low Road area. End house has an iron balcony.

» Date: 1929
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Harehills Lane and Buller Grove, telephone box

1st July 1936. Telephone box at the junction of Buller Grove and Harehills Lane, with houses in the background.

» Date: 1936
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Black Bull Yard, Experimental Sewer

April 1903. Looking down at one end of experimental sewer.

» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Hillidge Road, demolition

20th April 1934. Rear view of works due for demolition.

» Date: 1934
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Westbury Grove, damaged railings

31st May 1939. Westbury Grove showing damaged railings.

» Date: 1939
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Westbury Grove, damaged railings

31st May 1939. Westbury Grove showing damaged railings with man looking on in foreground.

» Date: 1939
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Hovingham Avenue, paving of.

29th October 1937. Waste ground in foreground, terraced houses in the distance.

» Date: 1937
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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» Language: en

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Hough Lane, air raid warden's post.

9th November 1939. Hough Lane, air raid warden's post in foreground. Behind wall distant view of houses and trees. On the right Bramley Library can just be seen. The site of the warden's post is now used for car parking.

» Date: 1939
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Hough Tree Road, Dawson's shop at number 23

9th January 1940. Image shows the corner of Hough Tree Road and Swinnow Lane. The proprietor of the small shop, addressed as number 23 Hough Tree Road, was Robert Dawson at this time. Mrs Annie Dawson is listed in a Leeds Directory for 1940 as residing at number 21, the adjoining property to the left. The shop sold sweets, confectionery, newspapers and tobacco and there are various advertising hoardings displayed on the exterior walls for brands of tobacco, cigarettes and tea.

» Date: 1940
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Hopewell Terrace, houses and shop

Undated. 2-4 Hopewell Terrace, looking north, shop H.Burgon and Son in foreground.

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» Language: en

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Green Road, corner of Cherry Row

9th May 1913. corner of Green Road and Cherry Row showing a corner shop, B. Edmondson the butcher; and other empty shops. Two men are measuring the building ready for Dolly Lane improvements. People and children are observing the scene. The road is cobbled and there is a cart in the background.

» Date: 1913
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Green Road

13th January 1937. shop facing Green Road with several advertising signs in the window for Zebo, Tizer, Cadburys' chocolate and Wills Capstan Navy Cut, and also on the walls. Small, unpaved side road has a lamp- post, a cart and washing on a line;

» Date: 1937
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Green Road corner of Cherry Row

16th April 1914. After Dolly Lane improvements showing new frontage to butcher shop of B. Edmanson and new housing. Green Road and Cherry Row are cobbled and have drain covers. There is a bicycle and dog outside the shop, and a man and a lamp-post in the road. A man in the shop doorway is possibly the proprietor.

» Date: 1914
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Grand Street

April 1904. Terrace houses nos. 19 and 21 Grand Street prior to demolition for a new road. This was part of the East Street improvement area. Windows on ground floor have shutters. Picture show surveyors measurements. The rest of the street remained standing until demolition in the mid to late 1930s.

» Date: 1904
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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» Language: en

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North Grange Road

11th February 1936. Showing surveyor's measurement of a stone wall in North Grange Road. Also shows man standing against the wall.

» Date: 1936
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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North Grange Road

11th February 1936. Showing surveyor's measurement of a stone wall in North Grange Road. Also shows man standing against the wall. Upper storeys and chimneys of houses behind the wall are visible.

» Date: 1936
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Glenthorpe Terrace

25th November 1938. Row of derelict terraced houses on Glenthorpe Terrace. Shop to left of picture with advertising posters for Fry's, Mansion Polish, Lyon's Tea and poster for Scala Theatre.

» Date: 1938
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Glenthorpe Terrace

25th November 1938. York Road improvement area, showing derelict housing in Glenthorpe Terrace.

» Date: 1938
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Gledhow Valley Road

13th February 1939. Gledhow Valley Road from hill opposite. D.Wright and Co. Woodend Nurseries, showing fields, trees and houses in distance.

» Date: 1939
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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» Date: http://www.leodis.net/
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» Language: en

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Gledhow Valley Road

13th February 1939. Part of Gledhow Valley Road running alongside fields belonging to D.Wright and Co., Woodend Nurseries.

» Date: 1939
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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» Language: en

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Gledhow Valley Road

13th February 1939. Gledhow Valley Road, showing semi-detached houses in distance. Land belonging to D. Wright and Co. in foreground.

» Date: 1939
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Gledhow Park Drive, opposite

19th July 1938. Gledhow Park Drive, showing wooded, grassed area in centre. To the right of the picture is a street lamp and a car. Semi-detached houses in background.

» Date: 1938
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Gledhow Lane and Thorn Lane

15th August 1936. Gledhow Lane and Thorn Lane - part of road with high stone wall, showing street lamp and trees.

» Date: 1936
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Gledhow Lane and Thorn Lane

30th September 1936.Corner of Gledhow Lane and Thorn Lane improvement. Mature trees behind wall.

» Date: 1936
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Thorn Lane and Gledhow Lane

30th September 1936.Corner of Thorn Lane and Gledhow Lane. Man standing on corner next to covered cart. Car and cyclist in the distance.

» Date: 1936
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Gledhow Lane - high walls

11th February 1936. Part of Gledhow Lane with high walls on either side. Measurements of walls are indicated, with man standing in front of one of the walls for scale. Image also includes street lamp.

» Date: 1936
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Gledhow Lane

11th February 1936. Another view of Gledhow Lane showing height of stone walls, with man standing in front of wall to show scale.

» Date: 1936
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Gledhow Wood Road, electricity transformer.

8th July 1937. Closer view of electricity transformer on Gledhow Wood Road, with house named

» Date: 1937
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Gledhow Wood Road, electricity transformer.

8th July 1937. Gledhow Wood Road, with electricity transformer in foreground. To rear of this is a house with the name

» Date: 1937
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Gledhow Lane and Church Lane

25th April 1933. Stone gateway and gatehouse at corner of Gledhow Lane and Church Lane, with semi-detached houses under construction.

» Date: 1933
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Harrogate Road to Roundhay Road

16th October 1925. Site of Gledhow Valley Road, showing row of cottages called Moor Allerton Bottoms,with woman and children. Perambulator in background; outhouses opposite cottages. The cottages were demolished around 1925 to make way for the construction of Gledhow Valley Road.

» Date: 1925
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Gledhow Valley, Allerton Grange Way under construction

8th August 1934. Construction of Allerton Grange Way, new road to Lidgett Lane. Large pipeline for beck covering prominent in foreground, set in open fields.

» Date: 1934
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Construction of Allerton Grange Way, Gledhow Valley

8th August 1934. Construction of Allerton Grange Way from Gledhow Valley Road to Lidgett Lane. Large pipeline for beck covering in foreground.

» Date: 1934
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Construction of Allerton Grange Way, Gledhow Valley, beck covering

27th August 1934. Gledhow Valley, showing covering for Gipton Beck. Large, mature trees in background.

» Date: 1934
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Construction of Allerton Grange Way, Gledhow Valley

27th August 1934. Gledhow Valley showing beck covering for Gipton Beck. Men with horse and cart in background.

» Date: 1934
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Gipton Report Centre

31st August 1940. Gipton Report Centre under construction, showing workmen on the site. The first house in view on the left is number 49 St Alban Road belonging to William Hillyard and Sons, undertakers. The houses visible in the photograph are along St Alban Road and, in the background, Brander Road.

» Date: 1940
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Gledhow Valley - beck covering.

27th August 1934. Covering for Gipton Beck in Gledhow Valley, running alongside Gledhow Valley Road.

» Date: 1934
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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View from Middleton Pit Hill

3rd September 1918. View from Middleton Pit Hill across fields to houses, factories, factory chimneys and other industrial buildings in Hunslet.

» Date: 1918
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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View of Hunslet from Middleton Pit Hills

3rd September 1918. View across to Hunslet from Middleton Pit Hills, showing crop fields, houses, factory chimneys and factories in the distance.

» Date: 1918
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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View of Hunslet from Middleton Grange

3rd September 1918. View of Hunslet from Middleton Grange, showing pasture land, crop fields, housing, factory chimneys.

» Date: 1918
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Steel works from Thorpe Lane

19th September 1918.View across fields of steel works from Thorpe Lane. Distant view of railway line.

» Date: 1918
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Abbey Road, Kirkstall. Parapet wall of culvert.

29th November 1937. Parapet wall of culvert showing Abbey Mill race. Plank bridge in foregound, with crumbling stone wall and iron railings to either side.

» Date: 1937
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Abbey Walk and Morris Lane.

22nd May 1933. Junction of Morris Lane and Abbey Walk, showing stone wall with mature trees behind. Also in view is the corner of Crooked Acres.

» Date: 1933
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Abbey Road and Kirkstall Lane junction.

29th July 1938. Junction of Abbey Road and Kirkstall Lane, showing tram lines, traffic lights, bus, car, overhead tram wires, Abbey Cinema, Cross Row.

» Date: 1938
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Public library in Abbey Road, Kirkstall.

29th July 1938. Abbey Road, Kirkstall, showing public library and police station. Also in view is a drinking fountain, telephone box, car, traffic lights, factory chimney and advertising hoardings.

» Date: 1938
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Accommodation Road and Great Garden Street - looking SW

Undated. Corner of Great Garden Street and Accommodation Road, showing corner shop with wall advertising for Mansion Polish; children playing in street and group of men on doorstep. Property shown belongs to one Clara Sutcliffe.

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» Language: en

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Accommodation Road, 17-23

Undated. 17-23 Accommodation Road, with group of small children to left of picture, standing next to gas lamp. Property shown belongs to C. Rawnsley and B. Hoyle.

» Date: http://www.leodis.net/imagesLeodis/screen/87/87.jpg
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» Language: en

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Accommodation Road,17-23, back of property.

Undated. 17-23 Accommodation Road - back of property, looking NE. Picture shows women in doorways, washing on line, dustbins, mangle, and sash windows.

» Date: http://www.leodis.net/imagesLeodis/screen/88/88.jpg
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Acorn Street and Great Garden Street.

Undated. Corner of Acorn Street and Great Garden Street, showing terraced houses (back-to-back), children in street, and corner shop with striped barbers pole and poster for Lyons Tea. Property belongs to J.Oddy.

» Date: http://www.leodis.net/imagesLeodis/screen/89/89.jpg
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Acorn Street looking SE

Undated. Picture shows warehouse/storage in main view. Terraced houses (back-to-back) to right of image, with small children, women and perambulators. Property belongs to T. Woolfoot and J.H. Collins.

» Date: http://www.leodis.net/imagesLeodis/screen/90/90.jpg
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Hopewell Terrace, nos. 1-3, and 20 Glasshouse Street.

Undated. View showing the corner of Hopewell Terrace and Glasshouse Street, with Mount Terrace in the background. Off-licence shop, William D. Wells, in foreground. Also shows advertising hoardings.

» Date: http://www.leodis.net/imagesLeodis/screen/94/94.jpg
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Hopewell View, air raid shelter.

12th March 1941. Brick built air raid shelter, Hopewell View.

» Date: 1941
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Hopewell Terrace, houses.

Undated. 6-8 Hopewell Terrace looking east.

» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Hopewell Terrace, houses.

Undated. 5-9 Hopewell Terrace, looking south with lamp post at the end of the street.

» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Hopewell Terrace, houses.

Undated. 3-5 Hopewell Terrace looking south west.

» Date: http://www.leodis.net/imagesLeodis/screen/98/98.jpg
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» Language: en

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Hunslet Moor railway crossing.

1st May 1929. Hunslet Moor railway crossing with street lamp and iron railings in the foreground.

» Date: 1929
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Branch Church street, surplus land.

9th March 1915. Branch Church street, surplus land at the back of the Royal Exchange public house. Swings to left of photo.

» Date: 1915
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Adel Mill Farm adjoining wall

7th December 1933. Wall adjoining Adel Mill Farm, looking S.E. Outhouse to right of photo.

» Date: 1933
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Adel Lane, 147-153, types of houses

10th January 1935. No's 147 to 153 Adel Lane, semi-detached houses, showing front gardens and tall trees.

» Date: 1935
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Hyde Park Corner, improvements

31st December 1904. Hyde Park Corner improvements (back premises) at the corner of Hyde Park Road and Headingley Lane. Bicycle in foreground & blurred image of woman.

» Date: 1904
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Hyde Park Corner improvements

31st December 1904. Hyde Park Corner improvements. Back premises at the corner of Hyde Park Road and Headingley Lane.

» Date: 1904
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Husler Grove, terraced houses

23rd September 1937.Husler Grove. Terraced houses in background, waste ground in foreground.

» Date: 1937
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Husler Grove, terraced houses

23rd September 1937.Terraced houses in background, waste ground in foreground.

» Date: 1937
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Husler Grove, Terraced Houses

23rd September 1937.Terraced houses in background, waste ground in foreground.

» Date: 1937
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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» Language: en

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Elland Road, railway bridge.

12th July 1939. Elland Road looking towards railway bridge with houses on the left and street lamp on the right. Advertising hoarding for Cleveland Discol. Bus stop sign on street lamp. Clothes post in garden to left of picture.

» Date: 1939
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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» Language: en

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Elland Road with advertising hoarding.

12th July 1939. Advertising hoarding for Evening News. View looking towards railway bridge with steam train crossing foreground shows detail of road surface. Telegraph poles, tramway poles (disused) and street lamps.

» Date: 1939
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Elland Road,advertising hoarding

12th July 1939. View showing advertising hoarding for Craven

» Date: 1939
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Elland Road with advertising hoarding

12th July 1939. Advertising hoarding for the Evening News. View looking towards railway bridge, with steam train crossing. Foreground shows detail of road surface.Telegraph poles, tramway poles (disused) and street lamp in view.

» Date: 1939
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Blackman Lane Improvement, Ella Street

Undated. Derelict, stone-built houses prior to improvement. Street lamp in foreground. Surveyor`s measurements on photograph.

» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Guildford Street Improvement

No date. Derelict property in yard off Guildford Street, previously the premises of G.Mason & Son, camera makers and Sharp, tinner.

» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Guildford Street Improvement

4th February 1920. Demolition site showing the wall of an adjoining building. A gas lamp is visible in the street.

» Date: 1920
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Guildford Street Improvement

5th October 1897. Rooftops and upper level of property in Guildford Street.

» Date: 1897
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Guildford Street Improvement

5th October 1897. Rooftop and upper level of property on Guildford Street, showing a skylight.

» Date: 1897
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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» Language: en

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Adel Lane, 175-191

10th January 1935. Semi-detached houses, showing front gardens, telegraph pole, street lamp, garages to left of picture.

» Date: 1935
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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St. Helen's Lane

17th January 1935. Semi-detached house, number 25 St. Helen's Lane under construction on the left with the neighbouring detached house beyond. Two men are standing on the construction site. These houses are located near the junction with Adel Lane.

» Date: 1935
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Aire Street Cellars.

17th May 1899. Excavation of cellars in Aire Street, with workmen and boys standing behind a pile of excavated stones. Also in view is a workman's hut and brazier, some tools, piping and business premises belonging to Rhodes and North and Ellis and Openshaw, Brass Founders and Merchants.

» Date: 1899
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Aire Street Cellars

17th May 1899. Closer view of excavation of old cellars on Aire Street, with workmen standing on edge. To left of picture is a brazier and workmen's billy-cans for tea.

» Date: 1899
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Aire Street Cellars

17th May 1899. View along the length of excavations of old cellars in Aire Street, showing piping being laid, workman standing at edge of trench and workman's hut. Also in view is a wall covered in various bill posters, gas lamp and premises of Rhodes and North.

» Date: 1899
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Aire Street Cellars

17th May 1899. View of Aire Street cellars excavations,with workmen standing in trench and around sides. Bill posters, workman's hut and premises of Rhodes and North also in view.

» Date: 1899
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Aire Street Cellars

17th May 1899. Close-up view of excavated old cellar in Aire Street. Workman's tools can be seen lying at edge of excavations.

» Date: 1899
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Albion Street, 26-34

15th November 1935. 26-34 Albion Street, showing premises of Stone Brothers, tailors, Halifax Building Society, Miles and Mountford, bag specialists and Leeds Provincial Building Society. 34 has door plates for L. C. Smith and Corona Typewriters, Arthur Waller, insurers, Whittington and Talbot, solicitors, Howe and Hindle, auctioneers, and Midland Counties Motor Finance Company Ltd.

» Date: 1935
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Albion Street, tobacconist's shop.

28th September 1937.View down Albion Street showing Jowett and Sowry, Swift Bros. debt collectors, tobacconist with sign for Gold Flake, Players and newspaper placard outside. Also in view are people walking along street and Headrow buildings in the distance.

» Date: 1937
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Albion Terrace

1st May 1936. Derelict premises backing on to Albion Terrace. Street lamp to right of picture.

» Date: 1936
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Albion Terrace

1st May 1936. View from Albion Terrace across waste ground, to Waterloo Road. Garden Gate pub just visible.

» Date: 1936
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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The Headrow, Lewis's

4th December 1938. View of Lewis's department store from the junction of Briggate & The Headrow during construction of extra floor on top of building.

» Date: 1938
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Albion Terrace

1st May 1936. View across waste ground from Albion Terrace. street lamp to left of picture. Derelict buildings in main view.

» Date: 1936
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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Headingley Lane, high wall

11th February 1936. Street view of high wall surrounding Buckingham House on Headingley Lane. Man standing against wall next to street lamp.

» Date: 1936
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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The Headrow, Lewis's

9th December 1938. View of Lewis's at the junction of The Headrow and Woodhouse Lane during construction work to create an extra floor.

» Date: 1938
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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The Headrow, Lewis's

9th December 1938. View of Lewis's at the junction of The Headrow and Woodhouse Lane during construction work to create an extra floor.

» Date: 1938
» Format: text/html
» Language: en

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An Unknown Girl, aged five; Girl aged five, holding a carnation

Subjects Depicted When these miniatures were painted, only the well off could afford to have portraits painted. We do not know who these children were, but we may assume that they were sisters and that they came from a wealthy family. Isaac Oliver (about 1558-1617) introduced distinguishing elements into these very similar images: the apple and carnation, the frown and the smile. It is possible that these symbols had a personal meaning for the family who commissioned the portraits, and they may not have been the artist's idea. In many paintings an apple (the fruit that Eve took from the tree of knowledge in the Garden of Eden) stood for the biblical story of the Fall of Man. A carnation symbolised the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ. But how these applied to these two girls is now unclear. The significance or otherwise of the ring is also unknown.

» Date: 1590 (made)

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Bertram Dench in It's a Girl

It's a Girl!, a farce by Austin Melford, had opened in London at the Strand Theatre in January 1932 starring Leslie Henson and Austin Melford, but the cast changed for Brighton in April of that year.

» Date: 11 April 1932 (dated)

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Felix Aylmer and Margaret Lockwood in Spider's Web

This caricature shows Felix Aylmer (1889-1979) and Margaret Lockwood (1916-1990) in Spider's Web at the Oxford New Theatre on 25 November 1954. It was drawn by Gilbert Sommerlad (1904-1976), a rehearsal pianist and orchestral violinist at the Brighton Theatre Royal from 1932 until 1936, and at the Oxford New Theatre from 1936 for over forty years. Sommerlad sketched the stars on stage when he wasn't needed in the orchestra pit, compiling the sketches in a series of albums.

» Date: 25 November 1954 (dated)

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Young Woman Peeling Apples

Young women peeling apples were a popular theme for dummy boards.

» Date: ca. 1690 (made)

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Chuval

The layout of borders on bag faces is often more complex than it is on floor carpets. Sometimes, as in this example, one border runs along the bottom and part of the way up each side, while the others expand to form a T-shape. There are sometimes extra borders, such as the narrow one along the upper edge. Perhaps because bag faces are relatively small, time was taken to include many small details. Small amounts of light purple silk have been used in the pile.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Towel

The name usually given in English to textiles like these is 'Perugia towels', deriving from tovaglie perugine. Tovaglia is usually translated as tablecloth, and tovagliolo as napkin, but their use was in both ecclesiastical and secular contexts. Their function included napkin and table cover, as well as altar cloth and sacristy hand towel. They were woven in mixed twill, ofter diaper, with white linen warp and weft, and had the characteristic feature of bands of pattern created with a supplementary weft of cotton, almost always dyed blue with indigo or woad, though occasionally in red or brown. An inventory of 1482 describes two napkins being '...in the style of Perugia' (banbagia a la perugina)so the association of such blue-banded textiles with this region may date back to at least the 15th century.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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» Date: Robert, Paul, born 1865 - died 1898 (made)

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Woman's sarong

Woman's sarong

» Date: Unknown (production)

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» Date: Robert, Paul, born 1865 - died 1898 (made)

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Voyage À Méroé, Au Fleuve Blanc, Au-delà De Fâzoql Dans Le Midi Du Royaume De Sennâr, À Syouah Et Dans Cinq Autres Oasis; Fait Dans Les Années 1819, 1820, 1821 Et 1822; Naga: 1, Plan Topographique Des Ruines. 2, Plan Des Restes D'Un Temple

Voyage À Méroé, Au Fleuve Blanc, Au-delà De Fâzoql Dans Le Midi Du Royaume De Sennâr, À Syouah Et Dans Cinq Autres Oasis; Fait Dans Les Années 1819, 1820, 1821 Et 1822; Naga: 1, Plan Topographique Des Ruines. 2, Plan Des Restes D'Un Temple

» Date: 1823-4 (printed)

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» Date: Robert, Paul, born 1865 - died 1898 (made)

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» Date: Robert, Paul, born 1865 - died 1898 (made)

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» Date: Robert, Paul, born 1865 - died 1898 (made)

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» Date: Robert, Paul, born 1865 - died 1898 (made)

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» Date: Robert, Paul, born 1865 - died 1898 (made)

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Figure

Figure

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Sculpture

Sculpture

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Commode

This elegant commode has a fashionable double-curved profile to the front, called ‘arc en arbalette’ or ‘in the form of a crossbow’. It is veneered in ebony, richly inlaid with marquetry showing motifs taken from a variety of engravings – flowers, vases and formal scrollwork. It was surely made in a Parisian workshop but we know little of its history. In the early 19th century it formed part of the furnishing of the Château de Montargis, to the south of Paris, from where it was bought, with four other pieces, by the English woman who finally bequeathed it to the Museum, but it is unlikely that it was made for that building.

» Date: [Commode] Veneered in ebony on a softwood carcase, with marquetry inlaid into the ground in several woods, ivory and brass.

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Mirror

Large sheets of plate glass were imported from France at this date. The complex design of this mirror incorporates both smaller and larger sections of glass. For the smaller sections, offcuts from larger pieces could be used, thus making the most of this expensive material.

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Sceptre

Sceptre

» Date: Turquoise-glazed crushed quartz composition known as faience. This same term is used for much later French tin-glazed earthenware but it is not at all the same material. The quartz composition is best-suited to modelling and moulding, and was invented in Egypt or Mesopotamia. It was probably a by-product of stone-working rather than potting. First used to make beads from about 4000 B.C., it was later used for amulets, figures of various sizes, vessels, tiles and other object types. Faience was glazed long before glaze was used on pottery - the latter only developed about 1600BC. Faience glaze is transparent and formed of alkali silicates (silica, soda, potash lime). It was first coloured only with copper oxide to form blues and greens emulating semi-precious stones such as turquoise, lapis lazuli and azurite but under the New Kingdom, other mineral oxides such as antimony, lead and cobalt were sometimes added to give other colours.

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Ewer

The Chinese blue-painted decoration is typical of the export style found at the end of the seventeeth century indiscriminately applied to wares for the Middle East and Europe.

» Date: Porcelain painted in underglaze blue

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Jug

This type of jug was formerly known as 'West Kent ware'. Similar jugs can be found in the British Museum and in the Museum of London.

» Date: Red earthenware covered partly with a white clay slip and copper green glaze

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Desk

This type of writing desk, with eight legs and a bank of drawers either side of a knee-hole, is known today as a bureau Mazarin. This is a 19th-century term. These desks have no connection with the era of Louis XIV of France's chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661), for they came into fashion in the 1670s. Many surviving bureaux Mazarins are sumptuous examples of the fine craftsmanship of 17th-century French ébénistes (cabinet-makers). A number of them are listed in the inventories that record the contents of the palace of Versailles near Paris and other royal residences.

» Date: Marquetry of brass, ebony, ivory, mother-of-pearl, copper, tin or pewter and clear turtle shell and horn with painted paper backing, on a softwood and walnut carcase

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Fan

Time The opening up of Japan in the mid-1850s after more than two centuries of seclusion from the rest of the world triggered a huge expansion in the manufacture of export goods in various media. These were avidly bought by western collectors, artists and designers, and played a central role in the development of 'Japonisme' and then art nouveau.

» Date: Bamboo, painted silk, ivory encrusted with hardstones, horn and coloured ivory

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Mirror

Chinese 'Coromandel' lacquer became very popular in Britain in the late 1670s and early 1680s, when quantities of screens and cabinets were shipped to Europe via trading ports in Indonesia and India. The technique involved cutting recesses into the surface of the lacquer to create the design. Importing screens that folded flat made good commercial sense to maximise cargo space. While some screens, particularly the larger examples about 180 cm high, were used intact, many were cut up on arrival and used to veneer mirrors, table-tops and cabinets. The small-scale decoration and the dimensions of the lacquer panels used on this mirror frame suggest that they came from an original overall design 80 cm high by 90 cm wide, approximately the size of the front of Chinese lacquer cabinets imported at this date. However the regularity of the width of the strips on this an other pieces veneered with lacquer, all about 15 cm wide, suggests that they originally formed small screens with six or eight folds. It would be interesting to find an intact folding screen of these dimensions for comparison.

» Date: Softwood, carved, and veneered with Chinese Coromanel lacquer.

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Mirror

At first, Japanese mirrors were close copies of Chinese and Korean originals, but by the 11th century mirrors with distinctively Japanese designs were being made. The decoration of two small birds and pine trees by the sea-shore on the back of this 13th-century mirror shows how formal Chinese designs were replaced by naturalistic subjects.

» Date: Cast bronze

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Skull

Sarah Bernhardt loved to surround herself with macabre objects, and as a publicity stunt had herself photographed in her coffin when she was alive. When she played Hamlet she used this as Yorick's skull in the grave scene.

» Date: S.117-1981

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Tile

The deeds of Bahram Gur, who ruled Iran in the 5th century, were recorded in the Persian epic, The Book of Kings. Here Bahram is shown out hunting on a camel with the harpist Azadah. To show his prowess, he shoots an arrow to pin the hind leg of a deer to its head.

» Date: Moulded fritware with colour in and lustre over the glaze

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Mug

Copper wares such as this drinking jug were being made when the Safavids came to power. The tinned metal once shone like silver. It would have contrasted strongly with the recessed background, which was filled with a black composition. The inscription around the neck wishes the owner happiness, peace, and ‘a life that lasts so long as the turtle-dove coos’. The text below gives the titles of a Sultan Jalal. The jug once had a handle.

» Date: 433-1876

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Screen

The technique of 'kuan cai' or 'incised polychrome' was unique to China. It involved cutting the design into a base made of brick dust, pig's blood and lacquer, and then filling the incised areas with coloured lacquer.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Gown

The pattern of floral trails seen on the printed fabric of this gown exhibits a blend of influences from Indian-painted and printed textiles, and woven silks, a style which remained popular until the end of the 18th century. The sleeves of this gown are closed with a narrow band of fabric, which fastens with a hook and eye.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Pyxis

The lid also bears an inscription in Arabic. This gives the date of manufacture as the year 359 in the Islamic calendar, equivalent to AD 969-70. It also tells us that the casket was made for Ziyad ibn Aflah, who was prefect of police in Cordoba under the caliph al-Hakam II (ruled 961-974). This is the only ivory casket of this type that was made for a named person who was not a member of the ruling dynasty. Ziyad and his family were important figures at the caliphal court, and the caliph probably commissioned the ivory for Ziyad as a gift to be bestowed, like titles, on a favourite.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Tazza

Trade The international reputation of fine glassware from Venice had reached its peak by the 16th century. Sophisticated glassware was imported at great expense. Henry VIII's inventory of 1547 includes several sorts of Venetian glass, including some in 'diaper worke', which almost certainly refers to filigree glass.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Carpet

Carpet

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Plate

Maiolica dish with geometric decoration and the coat of arms of King Matthias of Hungary and his wife, Beatrix of Aragon.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Drawing

Chambers was born in Sweden and died in London. He travelled widely, visiting China, and studied architecture at the Ecole des Arts, Paris, from 1749 and in Italy from 1750 to 1755. Many of his drawings from this period are contained in his important 'Franco-Italian' album, held in the V&A. Chambers moved to London in 1755 and published his influential Treatise on Civil Architecture in 1759. Chambers demonstrated the breadth of his style in buildings such as Gower (later Carrington) House and Melbourne House, London, in such country houses as Duddingston, Scotland, and in the garden architecture he designed for Wilton House, Wiltshire, and at Kew Gardens. He became head of government building in 1782, and in this capacity built Somerset House, London.

» Date: Pen and ink with pencil

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Lectern

This lectern was probably commissioned for the church of Sant'Orso di Aosta in Italy, soon after 1487. It would have stood in the choir, and supported a large missal from which the clergy chanted during services. Two round holes in the base would have supported tall candlesticks. The lectern was sold in about 1882 by the church authorities to a local antiquarian and collector Vittorio Avondo, who placed it in the chapel of his property, the Castello di Issogne in Valle d'Aosta. In 1906 the collector George Salting purchased the lectern from a London dealer. In 1883 the church authorities paid the celebrated carver-sculptor Giovanni Commoletti for a reproduction of the lectern, with some slight differences, which survives in the church.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Pilaster

Subjects Depicted The pilaster is decorated with a figure known as a 'term' - the upper half is human and the legs take the form of a tapering pilaster decorated with a mask. She probably represents Thalia, the muse of comedy and pastoral poetry, and holds a lira da braccio (an early form of violin), an instrument with which Thalia is often represented.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Kimono

This kimono would have been worn by a woman of the samurai class, the ruling military elite of Japan during the Edo period (1615-1868). The design has has been created using a paste-resist method called chaya-zome, which involves the extensive coverage of the fabric with rice paste, leaving only small areas of design to create the pattern when the cloth is dyed. This highly skilled and expensive technique, which results in an indigo blue design on a white ground, was reserved for the summer kimono of high ranking samurai women. Here the technique has been combined with a stencil-dyeing technique called kata kanoko and embroidery in silk and metallic threads.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Pendant

Made of rock crystal, this pendant is in the form of a fish. It has a fin at the top, carved with diaper work, and two carved fins below. The body ends in a stylised tail and a deep tube is pierced down its middle. The crystal probably dates from the Fatimid period (AD 969-1171), and was perhaps carved by an Islamic craftsman in Cairo. The head was either damaged or already missing when a goldsmith in the West, possibly in Paris,embellished it with precious mounts for use as a pendant. The mounts consist of a moulded rim of silver-gilt, decorated with a pattern of leaves. Around the mouth is nielloed (inlaid in black) the Lombardic inscription 'AVE: MARIA: GRACIA: PL[E]NA'. This Christian inscription means 'Hail Mary, full of Grace', and frequently occurs on medieval objects, probably reflecting their owner's devotion to the Virgin Mary.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Tile

This tile was probably made to commemorate a pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca). The main pilgrimage, the Hajj, occurs once a year, at the time of the Feast of Sacrifice, and the elaborate rites on this occasion culminate in visits to the Ka’bah in the Noble Sanctuary, which is often depicted on the certificates and mementos pilgrims acquire to record their journey. Here the sanctuary is represented diagrammatically as though seen from the north-east (which is at the bottom). The various structures within the surrounding arcades are labelled, and the space immediately above the diagram is filled with a relevant quotation from the Qur’an (surah III, verses 96–97), which enjoins the performance of the Hajj on all believers who can afford it.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Table

Historical Associations The table came from Spains Hall, near Finchling, Essex, the seat of the Kempe family.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Carpet

This hand-knotted carpet was probably made in Britain in the 1930s. The flattened modernist spiral design may have been inspired by rugs and carpets made by Ivan da Silva Bruhns, the best-known Parisian Art Deco carpet designer. He based his earliest compositions on South American ethnic styles.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Box

The body of this container is one of the earliest Islamic ivories to survive. Small birds perch in a grapevine, a design inherited from the pre-Islamic period. The vine scrollwork covers the whole available surface.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Armchair

Design & Designing The plain outline is enlivened by simple features such as the rounded front legs, which were turned on a lathe before construction. The top rail of the chair-back is ornamented with shallow relief carving of stylised flowers within circles and diamond shapes. The arms have a slight downward sweep for comfort.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Towel

The widest band on this towel has two rows of confronted wyverns (mythical winged dragons) and the band at the top has shields with a 'vol', or pair of wings.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Chasuble

The silk of the chasuble was probably made in Italy, which boasted the most sophisticated centres of silk manufacturing in Europe in the 15th century. The shape dates to the 17th century or later. Precious silk and fine embroidery, especially containing metallic threads, were used economically and were often recycled.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Frieze

The panels were part of a long frieze placed high on the walls of a religious building. They carry quotations from the Qur’an. One reads, ‘Our Lord, You have not created all this without a purpose – You are far above that! – so protect us from the torment of [the Fire]’. They were originally painted in bright colours, which made the words easier to read.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Ewer

Iranian potters had long drawn on both sources for models for their wares. They continued to do so during the Safavid period (1501-1722), when this piece was made.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Mantua

By the early 18th century, the mantua was worn by women as formal day wear. The pale blue silk of this example is brocaded in silver in a large-scale pattern of fantastic fruits and leaves, a typical design for the 1720s. The train of the gown is folded up and the sides held back with a loop and button. This complicated draping required a reversal of the silk when sewn together, so that only the right side of the fabric would show when properly arranged.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Sari

Historical Associations This splendid textile was almost certainly made specifically for London's Great Exhibition of 1851. This was the first of several international exhibitions in which the manufactures of India were brought to the attention of the European public, and they were widely admired both for their craftsmanship and designs. The Paris International Exhibition of 1867 was also particularly rich in Indian artefacts, many of which are now in the V&A collection.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Snuffers

Design & Designing These snuffers are an extremely rare survival from the Tudor court and show the care lavished by the court goldsmiths on small domestic items.The heart-shape of the wick box and the chased central panel were standard decorative forms in northern Europe. The lack of a hallmark may suggest that this was a special order for the court and not sold in a shop.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Chalice

Until about 1400 churches provided the principal market for pewter, although sepulchral chalices are still rare survivors of the medieval pewterer’s craft and, as they are usually untouched, are often have details in reasonable condition.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Teapot

Time From 1639 until the mid-1850s, merchants of the Dutch East India Company were the only Europeans permitted to conduct trade in Japan. This was due to the Japanese government's seclusion policy, which was enforced during this period. Hard-paste porcelain comparable in quality to Chinese and Japanese imports was first made at Meissen in Germany in the early years of the 18th century. Porcelain was made in Britain from the late 1740s onwards.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Vase

The Yuan (1271-1368) is the dynasty when China was ruled by Mongol emperors. Kilns became bigger to take advantage of economy of scale and were managed by competent entrepreneurs. Some kilns active in the preceding decades ceased production, but the Longquan, Jun and Cizhou kilns continued their success, Jingdezhen became an important ceramic producer. Yuan dynasty ceramics are as popular among collectors as their Song dynasty predecessors. The figurative subject of the vase is taken from Xi Xiang Ji The Story of the West Chamber and demonstrates the growing popularity of depicting illustrations on ceramic objects during the Jin and Yuan dynasties (1115-1368). This vase was originally used to store alcohol.

» Date: Unknown (maker)

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Bowl

The shape of this five-lobed bowl was probably influenced by Sasanian silver items and was also imitated in ceramic.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Textile

Trading & Ownership Similar developments in textile printing to those in England were taking place in Europe, particularly The Netherlands, France, Germany and Switzerland, and it is difficult to determine the origin of European printed textiles of this date. This cotton was acquired by the Museum from an Icelandic source in the 1880s. Iceland was ruled by Denmark in the late 17th century, and Denmark had strong trade links with London, so an English origin is possible for it.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Textile

Design & Designing In the late 17th and early 18th centuries the increasing import trade and other contacts between Asia and Europe greatly influenced the design of fashionable silks such as this. As well as the textiles themselves in clear, bright colours, other goods such as porcelain and lacquer lent shapes and motifs to the silk designers' repertoire. Books on natural history were a source for illustrations of unfamiliar flowers and fruit, fish, birds and other creatures.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Cupboard

On loan to Woolsthorpe Manor (National Trust).

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Tunic

Tunic

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Basin

The shape of this vessel is typical of the Mamluk period, the era from 1250 to 1517 when the Muslim Mamluk dynasty ruled Egypt and Syria. Such vessels were used primarily to contain water. However, this example is decorated in a style known as ‘Veneto-Saracenic’. This type of metalwork has been the subject of ongoing scholarly debate as to whether it was produced in Venice or in Mamluk Syria and Egypt, and by Muslim or Venetian metalworkers. Venice during this period traded, and fought, extensively with the Turkish and Arab empires that bordered the Mediterranean basin. Venetian merchants brought to the city Near Eastern craftsmen and goods, which had an immediate influence on the indigenous population and eventually on the rest of Europe. But according to some recent research, there is no concrete evidence to state that such metalwork can be attributed to Muslim craftsmen working in 15th-century Venice, especially since the Venetian guild system would not have tolerated foreign craftsmen. It has also been suggested that two groups can be distinguished within the decorative repertoire of Veneto-Saracenic ware: one that can be attributed to Damascus and the other to Cairo. The linear use of inlay, the background decoration of scrolling stems, and the areas highlighted in silver on this basin all suggest that it belongs to the group made in Cairo in the 15th century.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Figure

This small statue of the Buddhist deity Guanyin is a reminder that Chinese women had a duty to bear male children. Made in south-east China, the figure was the personal possession of a woman, who could pray to it for fertility, or give thanks to Guanyin for the birth of a son. Carved from imported African or Asian ivory, the figure's surface is coloured with red lacquer and gilding. Guanyin and the baby she holds both look downwards, in the direction of the sleeve ends of the deity's robe, giving the figure an air of contemplation.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Border

Much of the surviving medieval glass was removed from the cathedral in the middle of the 19th century and replaced with copies. The original panels were stored in various glaziers’ workshops, and eventually sold off to private collectors. Over time, some of the original panels from the cathedral have come into museum collections in Britain and in the United States.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Reliquary

The bones associated with the saints and the possessions associated with Christ are known as relics which were kept in containers called reliquaries. In the Middle Ages they were generally believed to have miraculous powers and were greatly venerated. Reliquaries took many forms. Some were shaped to represent the saint or various parts of the body such as an arm, head, leg, foot or finger (so-called 'speaking image' reliquaries). Others were designed as a monstrance, which placed the relic on view inside a glass cylinder (monstrare= to show). Another style of reliquary followed an architectural design, often in the Gothic style. This object is an example of a such a reliquary.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Necklace

This necklace is an important example of an archaelogical type of jewellery which is based on earlier nineteenth century protoypes, such as the Campana collection necklace in the Louvre, rather than original ancient models. The prototype necklaces may have been made or retailed by the Castellani family and consisted of authentic Etruscan carnelian scarabs strung with ancient gold beads. The varying dates of the components make it highly unlikely that an original scarab necklace ever existed or that such jewellery was worn before the nineteenth century. The Castellani firm, and other archaelogical jewellers, then made necklaces in the same style using genuine scarabs with contemporary gold beads.

» Date: Castellani (necklace, maker)

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Waistcoat

The high waistline and narrow sleeves, open at the front seam, are characteristic of women's waistcoats of the early 1620s. The blackwork embroidery is of exquisite quality and is worked in a continuous pattern throughout the body of the garment. A group of interlocking curling stems enhanced with a garden of roses, rosebuds, peapods, oak leaves, acorns, pansy and pomegranates, with wasps, butterflies and birds, make up the embroidery design. The extremely fine speckling stitches create the shaded effect of a woodblock print. This style of blackwork is typical of the early seventeenth-century and thought to have been inspired by the designs from woodblock prints that the embroiderers were using. The waistcoat is unlined and embellished with an insertion of bobbin lace in black and white linen at the back of each sleeve, and a edging of bobbin lace in the same colours.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Chandelier

As a medieval brass chandelier this is a rare survivor. Brass and bronze utility wares, even ones as elaborate as this, were frequently melted down and re-fashioned. The presence of the angel finial suggests this chandelier was used in a religious setting, either a public church or a chapel in a large private house. This chandelier may be compared with a fine and famous example in a prosperous merchant’s house shown in Jan Van Eyck’s painting Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife sometimes known as The Arnolfini Marriage of 1434 in the National Gallery, London.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Bracelet

Castellani, the leading jewellers in Rome, acquired ancient stones in great quantities from many sources. The scarcity of scarabs caused Augusto Castellani to comment in 1862 that their high price ‘impelled the moderns to counterfeit them. And they so perfected this trade that the most experienced eye can barely discover the deception’.

» Date: Castellani (bracelet, maker)

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Tableman

Backgammon in its various versions, has existed for at least 6000 years and has the longest recorded history of any board game. The popularity of the game in western Europe in the twelfth century may have been a result of contact with the East where it was very popular. This playing piece was produced in a Cologne workshop which specialised in the production of tablemen in the second half of the 12th century. The subject shows a man armed with a sword and shield fighting with a serpent which winds itself in and out of the branches of a tree. It is representing Hercules coping with his 11th labour, where he battles against the serpent-dragon guarding the Apples of the Hesperides. Cycles drawn from the life of Hercules are very rare in Western medieval art of this period.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Frontal band

Less well known is English work of a more modest type, of which this piece is an example. It is the only known piece of English medieval embroidery on which the maker's name is sewn. On the reverse, it states in Latin that Sister Joan of Beverly made it. The fact that it is signed suggests an amateur worker rather than professional.

» Date: Linen embroidered in silks and silver gilt

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Headdress

The first Burmese court play was written in the early 18th century, and both puppet plays and theatrical performances with actors became very popular throughout Burma in the 18th and 19th centuries. These plays were usually linked to an incident from Burmese history or were based on one of the Buddhist Jatakas (stories about the Buddha's previous incarnations).

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Chair

People The construction and wood of the chair indicate that it was made in Britain, but its maker and history are not recorded. Giles Grendey (1693-1780) was the cabinet-maker most noted for the production of red japanned furniture later in the 18th century, but this piece does not resemble the chairs he produced.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Bowl

Aghkand ware is also known as "Incised-outline" style. This ceramic is characterised by rims commonly decorated with painted wedges and the incised line is generally used to delimit a field which is then filled with colour, particularly green and brown. Animals, especially birds, are quite often depicted.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Stool

During the period 1500 to 1600 in Italy, stools were usually placed in more intimate settings than chairs, or for the use of less important members of a household in the hall. Like many surviving examples of this period, this stool and its pair (also in the Museum) have some replacement parts. It was acquired in 1891 from Stefano Bardini (1836 - 1922), the most famous Italian dealer of his day. His clients ranged from private collectors like Isabella Stewart Gardner of Boston and Albert Figdor of Vienna, to museums like the Louvre in Paris and the Hermitage in St Petersburg, as well as the South Kensington Museum, London (now the V&A).

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Page

The painting has been detached from a volume, otherwise intact and still at the V&A, known as the ‘Small Clive Album’. It is associated with Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (1725–1774).

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Netsuke

The appearance of Chinese illustrated books in Japan also coincided with the development of a thriving ivory-carving industry centred on the coastal regions of southern China, particularly Zhangzhou in Fujian province. This catered in large part for Portuguese and Spanish missionaries based throughout Asia. Through Japanese contact with China at this time, Chinese carvings reached Japan and played a crucial role in the development of netsuke. Ivory was subsequently one of the most important and widely used materials for the manufacture of netsuke, as in this example.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Dish

This dish is an example of a distinctive ceramic tradition that developed in eastern Iran from the 10th century. Potters there took inspiration from indigenous metalwork and applied slip of contrasting colours to create the decoration.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Painting

The Akbarnama was commissioned by the emperor Akbar in 1589 as the official chronicle of his reign. It was written by his court historian and biographer Abu'l Fazl who finished the major part of the text by 1596. The illustrations were being painted as the historian drafted and rewrote his textby at least 49 different artists from Akbar's studio. After Akbar's death in 1605, this incomplete manuscript remained in the library of his son, Jahangir (r. 1605-1627), who recorded his ownership on the flyleaf, and later Shah Jahan (r. 1628-1658). The Victoria and Albert Museum purchased it in 1896 from Mrs Frances Clarke, the widow of Major-General John Clarke, who acquired it in Lucknow while serving as Commissioner of Oudh between 1858 and 1862.

» Date: Sarwan (artist, painting, maker) Madhav (artist, portraits, maker) Miskin (artist, composition, maker)

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Chalice

In the 16th century, Spanish goldsmiths demonstrated great inventiveness in the design of church silver. They often combined religious symbols and images with fashionable secular ornament, such as one might find on domestic vessels like ewers or dishes. This chalice from Burgos is decorated with embossed (hammered) leaves and the foot is entirely covered with a delicately pricked or dotted scrollwork pattern. One of the coats of arms enamelled on the foot shows the Cross, with bones and Christ's crown of thorns. The other shows the arms of the monastic Carmelite Order, who presumably commissioned and used this chalice.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Textile

Design & Designing This type of orderly design of offset rows of floral motifs has its origins in the Mughal court designs of the 17th century, but has continued to be popular ever since. When pieces like this one were shown at the Great Exhibition in 1851, several British critics were impressed by this type of 'flat' decoration, which they saw as preferable to the heavy, over-naturalistic designs of contemporary Victorian Britain.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Chrismatory

Inscriptions The inscription reveals that this object is a chrismatory. This appears to be a bungled version of 'Confirma hoc Deus quod, operatus es in nobis' meaning 'Strengthen, O Lord, that which you have wrought for us' (Psalm 67/68: 27/29). This phrase was used during the Confirmation service.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Brunswick

This garment represents an 18th-century style of jacket known as a Brunswick. A shortened version of the formal sack-back dress, the Brunswick became popular in the 1760s for travelling and informal dress. Although this example has a hood, the very fine watered silk suggests it was intended for casual day wear rather than the rigours of 18th-century travel. Some variations have wrist-length sleeves, and buttons at the elbow of this jacket indicate that it might once have had removable extensions of the sleeve to cover the forearms.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Ring

In contrast to the rich garnet-set jewellery of the earlier Anglo-Saxon period, finger rings of the ninth century are rarely adorned with precious stones. The skills of the goldsmith are seen in this example, where the different techniques of filigree and granulation are combined to produce an elaborately decorated ring.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Orarion

Orarion

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Design

The firm was founded by John Brogden the elder in about 1796. From about 1824 to 1831 it was styled 'Brogden & Garland' and thereafter until 1841 'Garland & Watherston'. The younger Brogden, the son of Thomas Brogden and presumably a relative of the founder, served an apprenticeship to J.W. Garland as a goldsmith and jeweller from 1834 to 1841. Following Garland's departure, the remaining partner, J. H. Watherston, removed the firm to new premises at the 16 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden and in 1848 joined forces with the younger Brogden.

» Date: Newman, Charlotte Isabella (designed) Firm of John Brogden (made)

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Panel

Coats of arms appeared in stained-glass windows from the mid-13th century, but it was in the 14th that heraldic display became most widespread. Commissioning stained glass was a highly effective means of self-promotion. The nobility used armorial windows to embellish their churches, chapels and great halls alike, designing them to reflect not only their lineage, but also their real and aspirational allegiances. This panel is decorated with the arms of Mowbray - a family who, from the early 1300s, proved themselves loyal champions of Plantagenet rule. Their alliance with the Earl of Lancaster in rebellion against Edward II was apparently forgiven since, in 1394, Thomas de Mowbray was made Duke of Norfolk. His successors, the Howards, exercised considerable influence throughout the reign of the Tudors. This panel was possibly acquired from Strawberry Hill (Twickenham, Middlesex), home of Horace Walpole (1717-1797). Walpole, who pioneered England's 18th-century Gothic revival, transformed the property into a pseudo-Gothic 'castle' in which to hoard his celebrated collection of antiquities, prints and curiosities. His particular interest in heraldry was reflected in the Medieval stained glass with which he decorated his residence.

» Date: Unknown (maker)

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Altarpiece

The damaged state of this altarpiece reflects the religious upheavals of 16th century England, when many sculptures and images were destroyed during the Reformation. The blank area to the left originally showed the Adoration of the Kings. On the right are the remains of the Ascension of Christ, as indicated by the toga and legs under the arch.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Candlestick

The inlay technique first became popular in eastern Iran in the mid 12th century. It then spread westwards and by 1250 was in use across the Middle East. Its popularity declined after 1500. This candlestick was made when the technique was at its peak.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Bowl

The small town of Iznik in north-west Anatolia has given its name to some of the most accomplished ceramics produced in the Islamic Middle East. In the mid 15th century, potters there specialised in modest earthenware imitations of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain. But in the 1460s or 1470s, under the patronage of Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror, they began to manufacture bowls, dishes and other pieces of fritware that were elegant in shape and decoration. These wares were often very large.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Jug

This jug (Museum no. 1148-1904) has a very thin tin-glaze and the colour of the red body underneath is quite visible. It has an elongated ovoid-shape body with a small disc foot. The flat strap handle rises from just under the rim and ends on the widest part of the lower body. The majority of the body is covered with the thin tin glaze. A stylised vegetal and geometric pattern running vertically on the body is painted on in manganese oxide (purple-brown colour) and in copper oxide (green colour). Similar shaped jugs were excavated in the 1970s on the site of the Contrada del Nicchio in Siena. These jugs were found in wells on the site and were considered to have been largely dated to the 15th century. This dating must remain tenuous as the contents of the wells were not from 100% stratfied layers. The style of the painting and the use of the simple 'brown and green' colour scheme is characteristic of 'archaic maiolica' and is found as early as the latter part of the 13th century. This colour scheme remained popular throughout the 14th century and into the early part of the 15th century.

» Date: Unknown (maker)

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Settee

Materials & Making The cover is decorated with cross-stitch embroidery with a floral pattern imitating damask, a woven fabric. The legs and stretchers between them are carved and turned walnut, ebonised (painted black to look like ebony), with traces of gold stencilling.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Writing box

This lacquer design is based on the work of Kyoto designer Nishikawa Sukenobu (1671-1751) from his illustrated book Ehon Makuzugahara (1741). The decoration, of a firefly watching party, is in togidashi-e (polished out picture) when a design is created in hiramaki-e (low sprinkled picture), covered in several layers of lacquer (the same colour as the background) and polished away to reveal the image flush to the object. This style was very popular amongst the urban merchant class. Around the second half of the 16th century screens had begun to depict scenes of figures enjoying excursions and festivals. These paintings inspired later lacquer artists who would create narrative designs such as this writing box.

» Date: Wood covered in black, red, gold and silver lacquer

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Cope

The red velvet ground of Italian origin is an ideal foil for the high quality English embroidery (called opus anglicanum, the Latin for English work), which was sought after throughout Europe and bought by princes and popes. The scenes show the Life of the Virgin; apostles and saints with crouching lions; lion masks; angels; and a pair of birds. The cope relates very closely to a chasuble now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, known as the Chichester-Constable chasuble, and it is possible that they may have been designed to be used together. Vestments like this one illustrate the sumptuous and costly textiles which were favoured by the Christian church, often given by wealthy donors, making a conspicuous show of both earthly wealth and spiritual devotion.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Huipil

A huipil is a blouse-like garment that forms part of the traditional dress worn by Mexican women. Huipils are hand-woven by the women themselves, usually on a portable 'back-strap' or 'belt' loom, which is secured around the waist of the weaver, enabling her to continue weaving when opportunity and time permit. Huipils are very simply constructed; they consist of a woven cotton or wool rectangle with an opening left at the top for the head, much like a tunic. The weave is either plain or brocaded, which can then be embroidered or appliquéd if further decoration is desired. Patterns are often particular to the weaver's village or region and are therefore a useful clue to the huipil's origins.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Curfew

Curfews were usually made in sheet brass or copper. This example is a fine quality example that would have furnished a wealthy middle class home. It is decorated in repoussé, a type of embossed decoration on metal, which is hammered from the back to create a design in relief. This fireguard has a mixture of embossed and engraved decoration to create areas of high contrast and reflection. The decoration features three male heads within wreaths and floral scrollwork. The curfew is expressive of a long tradition of embossed brasswork in the Netherlands and similar decotation can also be found on brass buffet dishes and warming pan lids. Surviving curfews are rare.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Manuscript

This folding book, or parabaik, consists of 21 folios and illustrates one of the many stories of the Buddha's former lives, known as 'jatakas'. This jataka tells the story of the Buddha's former incarnation as Vidura, the wise minister of a King. As the story goes, Vimala, the wife of the ocean-god Varuna, coveted Vidhura. In order to get him, she ordered the demon Punnaka to bring Vidhura to her. Punnaka managed this by the trick of enticing the King to gamble his minister in a game of dice. The king lost, and Punnaka won Vidhura and took him off to the court of Vimala and Varuna. Over time, however, Vimala and Varuna were so taken with Vidhura's wisdom that they eventually allowed him to return to his original master, the King. The episodic treatment of the story sets out the narrative in no particular order through the illustrations of the text.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Shield

This shield is emblazoned with a griffin, a mythical beast that formed the coat of arms of the Villani family of Florence, who made their money in the wool trade in the years after 1300. I The shield was made for display rather than protection and it would have been carried by family retainers at processions and pageants staged in the city at the time. Until the 1460s, Florence was an oligarchic republic, where various merchant families vied with each other for supremacy. The theme of this shield is heraldic and serves to emphasise the importance of this particular family.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Chair

This folding armchair is among the Museum's most important Chinese treasures. One of the most renowned of all imperial palace workshops was the Orchard Factory. According to a number of later sources, the Orchard Factory was set up in the new capital, Beijing, at the beginning of the Ming dynasty in order to produce the finest carved lacquer. The chair may be a product of that workshop. Paintings reveal that folding chairs were used by Ming emperors when on their travels.He might be hunting, inspecting territories or making sacrifices at the tombs of his ancestors. The chair is decorated with patterns of five-clawed dragons and lotus flowers. This chair carries the mark of the Xuande reign period (1426-35), although stylistically it would appear to date from rather later, towards the mid-16th century.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Waistcoat

Women’s waistcoats were usually sleeveless like a man’s waistcoat, but shorter and shaped to fit over stays. Worn with a petticoat and bedgown, a waistcoat formed part of the informal ensemble of women’s dress. It could be worn under a gown to provide extra warmth. This waistcoat is made of silk quilted in a diaper pattern. Bright yellow was a popular colour for women’s dress from the 1740s to the 1770s. Quilting was a common type of needlework in the 18th century, as it was both decorative and practical. It can also be seen on petticoats and gowns. This waistcoat has a matching pair of pockets.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Painting

This study of a Martagon Lily is included in the "Small Clive Album", a volume of Indian paintings which is thought to have been given by Shuja ad-Daula, the Nawab of Avadh, to Lord Clive during his last visit to India in 1765-67. It contains 56 folios on which are Mughal paintings, drawings and flower studies dating to the 17th and 18th centuries. The binding is covered with an Indian brocade. The album was given to the museum by Mr John Goelet in 1956.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Key

People This key is clearly the work of a particularly skilled craftsman. The royal locksmiths to William III were the Bickford family. They are known to have supplied locks and keys to Hampton Court Palace. This magnificent key is very probably from their workshop.

» Date: Unknown (production) Bickford family, workshop of (probably, maker)

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Cabinet

The firm of Fourdinois first exhibited this cabinet at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1867. Several reviews hailed it as the masterpiece of the exhibition, and it was awarded the Grand Prix. The newly founded South Kensington Museum (later the V&A) bought the cabinet for £2,750. This was a much higher price than the curators had paid for most other antique pieces. What attracted them was its exceptional craftsmanship. They hoped it would inspire British designers and makers. The makers used a new type of inlay on this cabinet, where the inlaid wood was also finely carved.

» Date: Hilaire (designer) Pasti (designer) Néviller (designer) Firm of Henri-Auguste Fourdinois (maker)

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Jar

This tall-necked jar is an example of Sue ware, a type of pottery whose technology was introduced into Japan from Korea at the turn of the 5th century AD. Its liberal covering of natural ash glaze is the chance result of flying ash from the wood fuel settling and melting on the pot surface during firing. Its angularity and sharpness of execution is reminiscent of metalwork, and although no immediate prototype is identifiable, it is likely that imported Chinese bronzes were the formative inspiration.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Painting

Babur’s grandson, Akbar, had at least five copies of his grandfather’s memoirs, the Baburnama, made by the royal studios.

» Date: Bishndas (maker) Nanha (painter (artist))

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Doll

This doll has been dressed in the image of her owner, a young Eleanor Lloyd. Eleanor, along with her sister who were in the Brownies and Guides respectively, hand sewed outfits for their dolls to look like them in their uniforms. This outfit has a great attention to detail, with hand embroidered skill badges including the hostess, the pony rider and the first aid badge that Eleanor herself had attained. The doll called Amelia-Ann also 'belongs' to the same pack that Eleanor attended and is similarly one of The Gnomes, identifiable from the badge on her left arm.

» Date: Unknown (made) Eleanor Lloyd (made)

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Chalice

The decoration, with its band of silver inlay containing an Arabic inscription, is typically Islamic. The wording, however, states that it was made for 'the reverend father at the monastery of Dayr al-Madfan'.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Jacket

The tragedy of this masterpiece of erudition and design is its deteriorating condition. The dye that created the inky black colour of the silk embroidery thread was fixed with iron. Over the years, the iron oxidises (rusts) causing the silk thread to disintegrate. The extent of the loss is evident in these details; only a few motifs remain intact. There are to date no modern conservation techniques to halt this disintegration. These photographs record the endangered splendours of this garment.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Fragment

This is a small fragment from what must have been a superb large pichhwai (hanging for a Krishna shrine). While hangings of this type are usually associated with the area around Nathadwara in Rajasthan, intricately drawn and dyed pichhwais like this one were also made in South-East India for followers of the Vallabhacharya sect in the Deccan. The masterly drawing and dyeing on this piece suggests that it was made in South-East India, in the area of modern-day Andhra Pradesh formerly known for its superb painted and dyed textiles made for export as well as the domestic market. The complete hanging would have been about two metres high, and this fragment would have come from an area under the main field, which would almost certainly have shown Krishna in the centre flanked by gopis (cow-herd girls).

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Carpet

This particular example belonged to the British designer William Morris (1834-1896), who used it as a source for his own work.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Handkerchief

Design & Designing The decoration of this handkerchief was chosen to complement the imported Italian silks with small repeating motifs that were used for both men's and women's dress. The freedom an embroiderer has to introduce variety among motifs has been suppressed in this case in favour of perfect regularity, as if the design were created on the loom.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Chasuble

The silk was probably made in Italy; the embroidered orphreys were probably made in England which was renowned for high quality needlework of this type (often called 'opus anglicanum', literally 'English work'). The high cost of the materials may explain why the front of the chasuble has been put together from small pieces of the silk. The chasuble has been reduced from its original 'bell' shape cut to suit the more fashionable 'fiddle' shape of a later period (in or after the 17th century). Precious silk and fine embroidery, especially containing metallic threads, were used economically, and were often recycled.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Cupboard

Large cupboards in which to keep clothes and other objects had been in use in France for some time before this type of furniture was adapted in the later 17th century to serve in rooms of state. An impressive appearance could be heightened by means of the materials used, as in this example, which is finely decorated with boulle marquetry - veneers (wafer-thin sheets that are glued and then cut out to a design) in ebony, turtleshell, brass, pewter and horn. The Paris workshop of André-Charles Boulle (1642-1732) became synonymous with the most important pieces of furniture of this kind, but this example, although of high quality, is probably the work of another cabinet-maker.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Christening gown

This rather elaborate lace may have come from a bridal department or shop, but the principle of selling pre-hemmed fabric for dresmaking was well established by the 1930s, and many home dressmakers used such fabrics in the making of children's clothing.

» Date: [Christening gown] Lace, satin baby ribbon [Christening undergown] Silk

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Casket

Decorated caskets were probably often given as gifts in the middle ages. The scenes associated with courtly love on this one suggests that it may have been a love gift, to mark a betrothal.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Smock

Subject Depicted The predominance of floral motifs in the design reflects the growing fascination with flowers in England during the 16th century and the development of domestic gardens.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Chair

This is one of a large set of chairs that were made to furnish the main state apartment at Houghton Hall in Norfolk. Houghton was built between 1722 and 1735 for Sir Robert Walpole (1676-1745), England’s first prime minister. The first designs for Houghton were made by the architect James Gibbs in 1722. William Kent, who was establishing himself as a architectural decorator in the 1720s, took over decoration and furnishing of the main floor of the house in 1725. The chairs, with their impressive sculptural carving and oil gilded frames, are likely to have been designed by a chair-maker working under Kent's direction. They are very unusual in that they retain their original structural upholstery, and as such offer very important and interesting evidence of the methods of chairmaking and upholstery that were current in London workshops of the 1730s.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Bowl

During the reign of the Mamluk sultan Qa’itbay there was an upsurge in artistic production and quality. This was thanks in no small part to the sultan’s own enthusiastic patronage. While many of the artworks he commissioned were mosques and the furnishings to go with them, some objects appear to have been made for him personally. This beautiful deep-sided basin is inlaid with an inscription that reads: ‘Glory to our lord, the Sultan, the just ruler, the holy warrior, the guardian of the frontiers, the one aided [by God], the victorious, sultan of Islam and the Muslims, al-Malik al-Ashraf Abu'l-Nasr Qa'itbay’.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Tabernacle

Recent conservation revealed a parchment written in 1855, signed with the name of the dealer Carrand. According to this new evidence the tabernacle was thought to come from a Benedictine monastery in Cologne. Saint Pantaleon is likely to be the original location. The shrines of Saint Marinus and Saint Albinus are both still preserved there and their enamel reliquaries are stylistically very close to this piece.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Mantua

This is a magnificent example of English court dress of the mid-18th century. It would have been worn by a woman of aristocratic birth for court events involving the royal family. The style of this mantua was perfectly suited for maximum display of wealth and art; this example contains almost 10lb weight of silver thread worked in an elaborate 'Tree of Life' Design. The train is signed 'Rec'd of Mdme Leconte by me Magd. Giles'. The name Leconte has been associated with Huguenot embroideresses working in London between 1710 and 1746. The Huguenots were French Protestants who, following the repressive measures against them that the Catholic monarch Louis XIV of France restarted in 1685, emigrated to Britain and elsewhere.

» Date: Leconte (embroiderer) Giles, Magdalene (possibly, maker)

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Figure

Aiyanar is exceptional in that he is a village guardian deity elevated into the pantheon of temple Hinduism, where processional bronze images were commissioned. He is here represented seated in a relaxed posture (sukhasana) and holding an elephant goad (ankusa). His radiating hair, mimicking that worn by Siva in his ascetic–yogic forms, is decorated with a cobra and crescent moon, thus identifying himself closely with Siva. The elephant on which he rides wears bell-garlands and a small ‘howdah’-pedestal on which Aiyanar sits. Behind Aiyanar, holding on precariously, is a smaller figure, presumably the elephant-keeper (mahout). A similar ensemble is preserved in the Government Museum, Chennai.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Photograph

Photograph

» Date: Lenare (photographer)

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Armchair

Underneath this chair are all the stencilled and inked inventory marks that should connect it with a set of chairs supplied to Napoleon I at the Palais des Tuileries in Paris between 1799 and 1803. In fact the chair is a fake. The faker has taken the frame of a genuine chair from this set and decorated it in a much grander fashion. The foot mounts, for instance, were designed for a table, and close inspection of the sides of the front legs shows that they have had to be built out to make them thick enough to fit the mounts.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Cravat

Trading In an attempt to protect the English lace industry, a royal proclamation was issued in 1662 forbidding the importation or selling of foreign lace. The royal family was exempt from this prohibition. It also seems to have been ignored by members of the court and other fashionable people, since Venetian needle lace continued to be freely sold and worn in London.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Ceramic

Van Amburgh, three quarters Dutch and one quarter Cherokee Indian, was born in America and made his name there with the Titus Menagerie before coming to England in 1838 and attracting considerable attention by his Drury Lane performance which entranced Queen Victoria so much that she attended three performances in two weeks and wrote about it in her diaries. In 1839 The Duke of Wellington commissioned Landseer to paint his portrait, and numerous engravings of him appeared performing various dramatic episodes with his beasts such as The Brute Tamer of Pompeii. The manufacturers of this moulded Staffordshire jug would have copied an engraving for this image of him, and produced the jug in two sizes. Since Van Amburgh toured England on several occasions and was a sensation wherever he went, the jug would have been a popular souvenir.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Armchair

Place The scroll carving is similar to woodwork on the screen in the chapel at King's College, Cambridge, of about 1530 to 1535. The chair itself came from a private house, just outside Cambridge.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Teapot

Retailers & Trading Such teapots were commonly available in so-called 'Staffordshire Warehouses' in most major towns in Britain, to supply a fast-growing number of tea drinkers with social pretensions but little money. The cost of a Staffordshire teapot in the mid-18th century was generally about one shilling (approximately one or two days wages for the ordinary person).

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Panel

In spite of these losses, some medieval glass still survives in the cathedral, although not in its original location.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Ewer

This rock crystal ewer is one of a series that survives in collections across Europe. They are often in cathedral treasuries, where they were rededicated after being captured from their original Islamic settings. Such high-quality rock crystal vessels were made for the rulers of Cairo during the Fatimid period (969-1171). This is confirmed by inscriptions on several of them which name specific rulers. Great skill was required to hollow out the raw rock crystal without breaking it and to carve the delicate, often very shallow, decoration. These vessels were therefore probably prestigious items which the ruler would have displayed in his own treasury of prized possessions.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Shirt

Until the mid 20th century a man’s shirt was an item of underwear. However, those parts of it exposed when the wearer was fully dressed were often embellished. In this example, the collar and cuffs are embroidered in a pattern of stylised columbine and leaves in cross stitch. The embroidery continues on the seams of the sleeves and shirt body, even though these would not be seen. Collars and cuffs decorated in a similar way can be seen in portraits of men by Hans Holbein between 1535 and 1555.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Jacket

Style was not necessarily sacrificed for function as elegant, close-fitting designs graced the pages of tailoring journals. Some featured jackets and skirts in contrasting checks, stripes and diagonals, others, like this one, were made of the same material throughout. Vests based on the man’s waistcoat were another popular feature. Here the jacket is semi-fitted with no shaping in the front or fastenings so that it shows off the waistcoat underneath. The pearly tones of the buttons complement the soft colour of the cloth and the ruffled frill on the stand collar adds a delicate touch.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Cope

Some of the saints depicted on the orphrey bands probably connect this cope to a Cologne church, or at least a church nearby. St Ursula and St Severinus were Cologne saints and St Hubert belonged to a military order established by the Archbishops-Elector of Cologne. Their embroidered names identify them.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Locket

However, support for the Stuarts was conditional, as James II was to discover in 1688 when he had to flee abroad, leaving the throne to his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, William of Orange.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Casket

This casket is probably a pair with A.580-1910, which was made at the same time for the same daughter of 'Abd al-Rahman III. The commission may have commemorated a significant event in her life, such as a marriage or birth of a son.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Cassone

The practice of decorating wooden furniture wood with contrasting inlays was used by the craftsmen of Ancient Egypt. It continued to flourish during the Medieval period in Islamic cities such as Cairo and Damascus, where dense patterns were created using tiny inlaid pieces of bone or ivory and various woods. The technique seems to have been adopted in both Spain and Italy, particularly Venice, from about 1450, and was used on boxes and chests like this one. References in Italian 16th-century inventories to chests alla veneziana (in the Venetian style) may refer to this style of decoration. During the 19th-century it came to be known as alla certosina work, because it was thought that Carthusian monks specialised in the technique, though there is no good evidence of it.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Virginals

This unsigned but lavishly carved virginal was made in 1568, most likely in Flanders, for Wilhelm, Duke of Cleves (1516-1592). It is inscribed with Latin proverbs in praise of music and the soundboard is painted with flowers, a characteristic of keyboard instruments made in Antwerp during the 16th and 17th centuries. The case is carved in the exuberant Northern European Renaissance style, which owed more to grotesque than strictly classical ornament. This virginal was exhibited at the Exposition national belge in Brussels in 1880, and was acquired by this museum in 1896.

» Date: Unknown (Made)

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Handbag

Rationing and material restrictions did not cease in the aftermath of the Second World War. Dating from the first years after the war, this bag, made from top-quality lizard skin and lined in silk, would have been viewed as a luxury. It is characteristic of the smart, neat and stylish, but restrained, designs of the immediate post-war period. Styles for handbags at this time were either large and structured, or like this bag, smaller, and casual, to hang at the wrist.

» Date: Fassbender (maker)

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Vessel

This figure of an owl represents a type of ritual bronze vessel called zun, used for storing wine in tombs in order that the dead could continue offering sacrifices to the gods and ancestors. Bronze was one of the most important of the many materials used for grave goods. Good burials showed gratitude to the spirits of the universe and established the reputation of the dead ones in the afterworld.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Cabinet

Small cabinets that could easily fit on tables derive from the Spanish escritorio (writing desk). From about 1560, they were widely produced in Augsburg, Antwerp and Naples, cities that formed part of Spain’s imperial possessions in Europe. Ebony was imported from India and Africa, prized for its black veneer, and considered particularly attractive when decorated with ivory plaques, drawer handles and stringing. Prints of hunting scenes, engraved by artists like Jost Amman (1539–91) of Nuremberg and F. Galle of Antwerp (1537–1612) were very popular and frequently engraved on the ivory or bone plaques that covered the drawer-fronts of these cabinets.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Casket

The distinctive style of decoration uses moresques or tight scrolls, executed in gold, in combination with mother-of-pearl plaques. This may have been what was referred to by Italians variously as frissi grottesche- grotesque friezes, alla zemina- in the Persian manner, or petteniera turchesca- in the Turkish manner. It seems to have been a speciality of Venice, developed during the sixteenth-century, and probably imitated the Persian lacquer imported through the port city. It was used for luxury objects but also for the covers of government documents and ceremonial shields, suggesting that it was not regarded as a frivolous type of decoration.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Misericord

This misericord was probably carved in East Anglia, but we do not know which church it came from.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Locket

The lockets could be bought ready made, and the designs were standardised. Neo-classical motifs of funerary urns, plinths and obelisks joined the more traditional cherubs, angels and weeping willows. Hair was preserved as curls within the locket, or cut up and used to create designs.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Tankard

Coconuts are the fruit of the cocoa palm tree which is native to the Pacific. Mounted coconut vessels were popular items on the European buffet from at least the 13th century, evoking exotic and unknown worlds overseas, and were originally credited with magical and pharmaceutical properties, such as the power to detect the presence of poisons or to act as an aphrodisiac. Although mounted coconuts were often found in collecting cabinets, most often as standing cups and sometimes with zoomorphic mounts resembling, among other creatures, owls, ostriches or eagles, they do not seem to have been considered as rare as other exotic materials, like mother-of-pearl, nautilus shell, ivory or horn. By the late 16th century skilfully carved nuts (often with Old Testament scenes or mythological stories that appealed to Mannerist sensibilities), were highly valued, but the mounts on this unworked coconut must have been valued in their own right and demonstrate the goldsmith's skill in engraving, chasing and casting.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Chasuble

The velvet was made in Italy or Spain, then the centres for velvet weaving in Europe, and provided an ideal foil for rich embroidery. The style of 'pomegranate' shaped motifs on the voided velvet (a technique whereby the design is produced by leaving areas free of velvet) came to typify Renaissance textile design.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Doll

The Old Pretender is one of the oldest dolls in the museum's collection. It was carved from wood and covered with gesso (a mixture of plaster and glue) before being painted. The doll is fashionably dressed with a wig made of human hair and beauty spots painted on the face. It is associated with the court of King James VII (of Scotland) and II (of England and Wales) at the palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh. It is said to have been given to a family of loyal supporters by James II's son James Edward (acknowledged James VII in Scotland but not James III in England and Wales who was subsequently known as 'The Old Pretender').

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Kapunuk

Kapunuk

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Cape

This style of cape was adapted from those worn by Portuguese missionaries in 16th-century Japan. It is called a ‘bôzukappa’, from the Japanese word for priest (bôzu) and the transliteration of the Portuguese for cape (kappa). Their use was initially restricted to members of the military (samurai) class, but by the 18th century other sections of society were wearing them for travel along the expanding network of roads that linked Japan’s towns and cities. The cape is reversible and is patterned on one side using the kasuri technique, whereby yarns are selectively dyed prior to weaving, and on the other with fabric striped in blue, black and orange. The design on the patterned side is the face of Okame, the goddess of mirth, which was no doubt chosen to cheer the traveller on his journey.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Painting

The V&A purchased the manuscript in 1896 from Frances Clarke, the widow of Major General John Clarke, who bought it in India while serving as Commissioner of Oudh between 1858 and 1862.

» Date: Miskina (artist, outline, maker) Banwali (Kalan) (artist, painting, Banwali the Elder, maker)

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Smock

The smock was originally dated to the early seventeenth century and published as such in Hart and North, Historical Fashion in Detail (1998). However a closer look at the integral ruffle at the collar and cuffs reveals that these are inconsistent with the period of the separate ruff, c.1575 to 1620. Therefore the smock must date to the decades just before this period, 1560-1580.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Ring

This ring would originally have been brightly coloured with enamel, much of which has now been lost.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Carpet

Another series of rugs of a similar size and technique, each with a four- or five-character inscription assigning it to a particular hall of the imperial domain, is known outside China. It has been suggested that it dates to the reign of the Qianlong emperor (ruled 1736-1795). Another source has claimed that this group of rugs was made in the Street of the Embroiderers in Beijing in the 20th century, in which case an imperial connection seems unlikely.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Necklace

The archaeological discoveries of the 19th century led to a greater awareness and understanding of ancient jewellery. For the first time these intricate gold pieces were collected, studied and published, and both the originals and the published illustrations of them were a rich new source for designers of jewellery. The resulting 'archaeological-style' jewellery was fashionable from around 1860 until at least the 1880s. The Italian firm of Castellani was at the forefront of this style. Castellani both made jewellery and owned an extensive collection of antiquities. This necklace is a copy of a Greek original from around 330-300 BC that was excavated at Great Blinitza, in the Crimea in 1864, now at the Hermitage Museum. Possibly the version shown by Alessandro Castellani at the International Exhibitions in Philadelphia in 1876 and 1878.

» Date: Castellani (maker)

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Combinations

Essential fabrics such as wool were in short supply during the Second World War (1939-1945). The Utility clothing scheme ensured that the public could still buy warm woollen underwear, like these women's combinations. The style is slim-fitting, with narrow hems and no trims. The original shop tag is still attached.

» Date: Wolsey (manufacturer) Utility (made for)

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Tapestry

This long tapestry with three medallions surrounded with garlands bears the arms and motto of Giovio of Como on a mille-fleurs ground, enlivened with a variety of birds and animals. It is the finest example of its kind known. It was presumably intended to hang above wainscotting. Paolo Giovio was bishop of Nocera, but his motto 'fato prudentia minor' (wisdom is weaker than faith) is more Humanist than Christian.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Armchair

This armchair, of throne-like proportions, was made in about 1800-05, almost certainly in Rome. The form of the chair, flanked by crouching lions, is derived from classical Roman models and was used throughout Europe between 1800 and 1820. Lions symbolised wealth and power and had been used on thrones since ancient times. An old label in German describes it as ‘Napoleon’s throne chair’ and records that it was taken from Versailles in 1870, which may be true, as France was invaded by Germany at that time. The underside of the chair is also stamped with several numbers that must relate to inventories, but none of these has been identified.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Parochet

One Hebrew inscription reads "All work was completed by Ellul 5436". This date equates to August-September 1676 AD. A band immediately below the central panel has been added later, with the date 5471 [1711 AD] and the donor's name, the honoured Joseph bar Haim Segal Polacko. There is a binder for the Torah Scrolls in the Jewish Museum in New York, which was embroidered by Rikah Polacko in 1662. Rikah is thought to have been the mother of Joseph Polakco and she may have embroidered this curtain.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Corset

The steel busk defined the front of the garment. On this corset the spoon-shaped busk is wider at the bottom than the top. This was supposed to equalise pressure on the abdomen, making the corset more wearable. In reality, it could make it more restricting as the corset could be pulled in more at the waist.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Armchair

Chairs with caned backs and seats were made from the 1680s onwards. Caning was an innovation introduced to England from Asia. The diagonally set front legs and the arched shape to the front rail of this chair show that it was made between 1700 and 1720. We do not know the significance of the lamb and flag carved on the top cresting. The motif is often associated with the Knights Templar and may indicate that the chair was made for use by a religious organisation. In the 1830s the chair was owned by Mr Thomas Baylis who lived at Pryor’s Bank, close to Fulham church in London. He was an early collector of antique furniture, who published a catalogue of his collection.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Plate

Iznik is the name given to the splendid ceramics produced in the town of that name in north-west Turkey in the 15th to 17th centuries. This plate belongs to a group of wares made around 1500 to 1550 and painted in blue and turquoise with decoration inspired by diverse sources. These included Chinese porcelain and Italian maiolica, which may have been the source of the portrait on this piece. The shape of the plate is also Italian, with a wide, flat rim and a shallow central recess. This object is clear evidence of the intense commercial and other contacts between Turkey and Italy in the 16th century.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Arrow

Arrow

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Photograph

This photograph is from a collection of family photographs of the Longcroft family, who lived in the Bethnal Green area of East London at the beginning of the 20th century. The family ran a wood working business from their house in Bethnal Green and there were a total of four brothers and seven sisters. This photograph is of Lottie Longcroft and her grandmother posing on the roof of their home in Bethnal Green.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Kimono fabric

Historical Associations Japan was keen to show off its textile skills at the big exhibitions that took place in Europe in the 19th century. This length was shown at the Paris International Exhibition of 1867 where it was bought by the Museum.

» Date: Silk crepe, with resist-dyed decoration

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Pitcher

This large bulbous salt-glazed stoneware pitcher is of a type known as a Bartmann because it is decorated with an applied relief-moulded bearded face mask at the neck. In England, it is often wrongly referred to as a Bellarmine. Below the face are out-of-proportion arms in slashed sleeves and a finely-pleated linen shirt, the top band possibly intended to look like smocking. The vessel is decorated all over with an oak-leaf and acorn design which probably derives from a German woodblock engraving. The decoration also includes a rather incongruous half-human branch representing Isaiah's Tree of Jesse prophecy that the Messiah would spring from the family (tree) of Jesse, father of King David. Robust, durable and non-porous stoneware mugs, jugs and bottles were indispensable to daily life in late medieval Germany. They were equally useful as an export commodity as they could endure transportation by sea. Small plain German Bartmann bottles were used throughout Europe but this larger and more elaborate type were harder to pot so more expensive to buy. As a result, although they were exported, fewer are now found among excavated material. Large pitchers were used to hold beer or wine in readiness beside the table to decant when required into jugs, mugs or glasses. Although the Cologne stoneware industry began rather later than that of other Rhineland towns, by about 1500 it was already exporting mugs and jugs with botanical decoration, particularly to Britain. Cologne belonged to the Hanseatic League, an alliance of trading guilds that held a trade monopoly over much of northern Europe and the Baltic between the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries. By about 1200, Cologne merchants had established a trading post in London called the Steelyard on the site of what is now Cannon Street railway station. Between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, they controlled much of the cross-Channel trade of stoneware from the Rhine.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Bowl

When the Middle East passed under Islamic rule in the 7th century, there was no sudden break in artistic production. One of the main influences on early Islamic art was the art of the Sasanian empire. This empire had ruled Iraq, Iran and the western part of Central Asia for four centuries before the Islamic conquest. Sasanian traditions continued for many years after that and so it is often difficult to tell whether an object is late Sasanian or early Islamic.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Bowl

In many Islamic societies, scenes containing humans and animals were a common type of decoration in non-religious contexts. The source of this imagery was usually poetry, the most highly esteemed form of secular literature.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Bottle

Historical Associations In Protestant Northern Europe the bearded masks of these ubiquitous stoneware bottles were soon exploited to lampoon a champion of the Counter-Reformation, Cardinal Bellarmine (1542-1621), as well as the Duke of Alba (died 1582), the ruthless Spanish general and administrator who was the scourge of the Spanish Netherlands. Collectors in the 19th century usually referred to these bottles simply as 'greybeards' but the German term 'Bartmann' (bearded man) is now increasingly used.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Waistcoat

Trading It is unlikely that the fabric was especially commissioned for this garment. It would have been very expensive for someone to do this. Moreover the width of the repeat (which spans more than half of the front of the waistcoat) means that a proportion of the design is lost in the side seams.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Chair

Time This kind of furniture can be dated to the second half of the 17th century. However, the presence of such pieces in certain houses with Tudor associations and the use of twist-turning (spiral-turning), which was believed to be typical of Elizabethan furniture, seem to have led the influential collector and connoisseur Horace Walpole (1717-1797) to deduce that they were examples of early English work, a belief that continued to be held for most of the19th century.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Woodcut

This example of a popular Sikh woodcut was collected at one of the local fairs or bazaars by John Lockwood Kipling while he was director from 1875 to 1893 of the Mayo School of Art at Lahore, in present-day north-east Pakistan. It was presented to the V&A in 1917 by his famous son, Rudyard. It depicts the Hindu god Shiva and his consort, Parvati, seated beneath a tree preparing opium, with their animal vahanas or vehicles in front of them. The elephant-headed god Ganesh is also seated in front of them, and the goddess Kartikkeya is climbing on the lion’s back. Such woodcuts were made by Sikhs for tourists or pilgrims and this example was clearly intended specifically for Hindu pilgrims.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Bowl

Once Iraqi potters could successfully imitate Chinese whiteware, they began to treat the white surface of their ceramics as a blank canvas. Painting into the glaze in cobalt blue was a local innovation, which resulted in the world's first blue-and-white ceramics.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Hanging

This hanging is one of a group of four chintz panels of the same design which were acquired from Ashburnham Place in Sussex. They appear to have been cut to sizes suitable for use as bed-hangings. Another set of hangings from Ashburnham Place have the closely related designs embroidered in chain-stitch (IS.152-1953 and IS.155-1953). Both sets are divided between the V&A, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the Calico Museum, Ahmedabad, and the Cooper Hewitt Museum, New York.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Button

Icelandic silversmiths had worked occasionally in filigree since the Middle Ages, but by the middle of the 19th century it had become their favourite technique. This button shows all the characteristics of Icelandic filigree. The pattern is clear, regular, and slightly asymmetric. It has small pendant filigree hearts (three are missing) in the same technique. It is made of open filigree, which is riveted to the front of the hollow button, not soldered. It could only come from Iceland.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Bottle (unguentarium)

Oils and other unguents were important in Roman society for preparing the bodies of burial or cremation. After use, the containers for such prepatory producs were often deposited alongside the bodies in their graves.

» Date: Applied thread decoration

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Teapoy

Design & Designing The front of the chest is carved with a panel of scrolling foliage in a style loosely derived from ancient Greece. The sides are decorated with rosettes flanked by palmettes of a type common in Etruscan art from ancient Italy.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Purse

Ownership & Use Heraldic devices were displayed in many different ways, and their use on even small personal belongings such as this little purse indicates the important role that they had in proclaiming ownership and lineage. The heraldry on this purse reflects four marriages (that is, four family alliances), culminating in that of Sir Henry Parker and Elizabeth Calthorpe. This shows the significance attached to the family 'pedigree' by the parties involved.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Wallpaper

Ownership & Use We do not know the purpose of the room in which this wall hanging was found. However, at this date leather wall coverings were often used in the dining rooms of the wealthy and well-to-do. Leather had an advantage over textile wall coverings because it did not retain the smell of the food. The pattern of putti supporting garlands of fruit and flowers was an appropriate decoration for a room intended for entertaining and for dining.

» Date: Unknown (maker)

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Album

Album

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Casket

As well as altarpieces, the workshop also made caskets as bridal gifts to hold jewels or documents, and these were often decorated with scenes from mythology. This example is decorated with scenes from the legend of Jason. This ancient Greek tale tells how, to win the throne of his native Iolcus, Jason led the Argonauts on a voyage to capture the Golden Fleece from Aeetes, king of Colchis. The narrative starts on the front of the casket, with the events leading up to the exile of the young Jason from Iolcus. It continues around all four sides, detailing his flight by boat and his eventual arrival at Colchis, where Aeetes refused to give up the fleece until Jason performed a set of tasks. First, as shown, he had to yoke two fire-breathing bulls to a plow and plow the field of Ares. Then he had to sow the field with dragon’s teeth, from which armed men sprang up. Jason overcame all these obstacles to claim the Golden Fleece, which is shown in the top corner of the final scene of the casket.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Ewer

With this technique potters made a glazed vessel or tile with little or no decoration in the normal way. When the piece had cooled, they painted a design over the glaze in metallic compounds. The pot or tile was then fired again, this time with a restricted supply of oxygen. In these conditions, the metallic compounds broke down, and a thin deposit of copper or silver was left on the surface of the glaze. When polished, this surface layer reflected the light.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Chest

Chests were the earliest form of furniture used for storage and could easily be carried from place to place. This one is smaller than most and easily transportable. Chests were used for storing clothes, linen, documents or money and often had locks for security, as in this case. They were used in churches, as well as in houses, to store valuables. This chest is said to have come from a church in Hampshire. The decoration is contained entirely in the chip-carved roundels on the front. Other chests with similar chip-carving have been found, mainly in Surrey and Sussex.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Jar

This round-bottomed jar is one of the earliest pieces of Japanese ceramics in the Museum's collection. It was probably intended as a burial accessory for one of the many large tombs built in Japan in the 6th century AD. Similar vessels with rounded bottoms have been found with tall supporting stands. The marks visible on the exterior reveal that the jar was made by joining together a series of coils of clay which were then beaten into shape with a textured paddle. The flow of air into the kiln was controlled so that only a limited amount of oxygen could enter. This resulting reduced atmosphere caused the iron-rich clay to turn a greyish black colour. The deep green splash of glaze which defines the front of the jar is the chance result of flying ash from the wood fuel settling and melting on the pot surface during firing. These features are characteristic of ceramics known as Sue wares. The technology for making these wares was introduced into Japan from Korea at the turn of the 5th century AD.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Cassone

This travelling chest bears the coats of arms of Elizabetta Gonzaga of Mantua (1471–1526) and Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino (1472–1508). It was probably made for their wedding in 1488. The emblems on this chest include the ‘flames of love’, the symbol of the Compagna della Calza, an order of knights based in Venice, to which Guidobaldo’s illustrious father Frederico (1422–1482) had belonged. Chests with this distinctive shape were often strapped to the backs of mules or used as household furnishings. The married couple’s life involved much travel and a brief spell in exile following the sacking of Urbino in 1502.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Crucifixion

Opinion has been divided over whether this panel comes from northern Italy or Umbria. The vast majority of surviving works in this unusual medium are linked to Umbria, and links have also been pointed out between the style of this plaque and Umbrian book illumination.

» Date: ca. 1370-1380 (made)

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Pendant

The settings of the stones on this pendant are open at the back. This allows direct contact with the wearer's skin. According to medieval and Renaissance beliefs, the magical properties of the stones could thus benefit the wearer. Renaisance pendants were often made as amulets to protect against danger. Here, the power of the amulet is heightened by an inscription to ward off epilepsy and an invocation to God, Jesus and Mary.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Collar

Ownership & Use Lace like this appears in a number of English portraits of the 1630s and early 1640s, and custom for it was at the highest social level. The Countess of Leicester, wife to the English Ambassador to France, was commissioned to purchase English bobbin lace as a present for Anne of Austria, the French Queen, in 1637 and complained of the considerable expense.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Stomacher

A stomacher is a decorative panel of fabric, usually triangular in shape, worn to fill the space between the front edges of a woman’s open gown. The stomacher formed part of the ensemble of fashionable women’s dress from the 1680s to the 1780s. This example is embroidered in coloured silks in a pattern of leaves and flowers. The diagonal lacing is decorative only, as pin holes in the tabs on either side of the stomacher indicate how it was fastened to the gown.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Bowl

In the poetry recited at such entertainments, the gazelle was often a metaphor for elusive beauty. Appropriately, the gazelle on this bowl is surrounded by Persian verses.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Tunic

This natural-coloured wool tunic with tapestry woven ornaments was for a young child. Its decoration suggests it was a more formal tunic than some others found in graves, as it has a very full complement of ornaments: neck-bands, shoulder-bands, sleeve-bands, shoulder and skirt-squares and hem-bands with upturned ends. The side seams are left open at the top for the child's arms, but it is also equipped with narrow sleeves which could have been used as leading strings. However, the tunic is in a very good condition so it is possible that the little child never wore it in life.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Waistcoat

Designs & Designing The silk is a damask weave in a large pattern of trailing leaves and abstract geometrical shapes. (Damask is a type of weave whose effect depends on the differing play of light on its pattern surfaces, which alternate between the smooth face and the contrasting reverse of satin weave.) It is similar to patterns designed for damask by the silk designer James Leman in 1708. These patterns by Leman and other designers are known as 'bizarre silks'.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Carpet

Small carpets, like this, with a single arch are often referred to as 'prayer carpets' because mats are often used to define a person's space during Muslim prayer rituals. The arch is usually taken to represent the mihrab or decorative panel in the wall of a mosque which indicates the direction of Mecca. The important thing to note about this carpet, which was probably woven by the Saryk tribal group, is that much of the lower end has been rewoven and patched. The white pile is cotton; the rest is wool. Cotton gives a purer white than wool, which tends to be creamy in colour.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Painting

The Akbarnama was commissioned by the emperor Akbar as the official chronicle of his reign. It was written by his court historian and biographer Abu'l Fazl between 1590 and 1596 and is thought to have been illustrated between about 1592 and 1594 by at least 49 different artists from Akbar's studio. After Akbar's death in 1605, the manuscript remained in the library of his son, Jahangir (r. 1605-1627) and later Shah Jahan (r.1628-1658). The Victoria and Albert Museum purchased it in 1896 from Mrs Frances Clarke, the widow of Major-General John Clarke, who bought it in India while serving as Commissioner of Oudh between 1858 and 1862.

» Date: Miskina (composition, artist) Paras (colours and details, artist)

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Doll

Although this 18th century doll looks looks as if she represents an adult woman, her clothing presents clues which demonstrate very clearly that she is not an adult. In the 18th century, dresses fastening at the back like this were for children, not women. Long streamers of matching fabric called 'leading strings' at the back of the dress indicate that she represents a teenage girl. Leading strings originated in the clothing of very young children, where they helped adults to assist the child who was learning to walk. In the 18th century they also became customary for unmarried teenage girls, perhaps to symbolise the fact that they were still under parental control.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Epitaphios

The Eudaimonoioannes family held an important place in the history of the Morea (the Peloponnese), as archons of Monemvasia from the 13th century until the Turkish conquest. The epitaphios was probably commissioned for donation to a church in Nicholas' native Morea. It is likely to have been made somewhere in the Greek peninsula but was possibly a product of the capital, Constantinople.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Painting

The painting shows an episode from the story of Krishna and Rukmini, known as the 'Rukmini-Harana' or 'Abduction of Rukmini'. This scene shows Rukmini in a pavilion, listening to a messenger sent by her lover, the Hindu god Krishna. The messenger, shown with his hand raised to indicate that he is speaking, brings Rukmini the welcome news that Krishna intends to abduct her in order to prevent her marriage to another man. The bright red background accentuates the passionate feelings that Rukmini has for the absent Krishna.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Dagger

The form of this dagger, with its twisted grip and short quillons on the hilt, can be found in Mughal painting dating to about 1600. The blade is of watered steel – a high-furnaced metal with a surface finish resembling watered silk. It has a thick, armour-piercing point and is very finely chiselled on both sides with small scenes at the forte – the part of the hilt immediately beneath the blade. On one side, a figure mounted on an elephant spears an attacking tiger; on the other, an elephant and horse, both with riders, are shown fighting. Beneath the tiger are drilled numerals typical of those found on weapons dispersed from the royal armoury of Bikaner, Rajasthan. The dagger was originally overlaid with gold over much of the hilt and on the chiselled decoration of the blade, though much of this has worn away. The weapon is a rare survivor of what must have been a vast production of steel arms and armour for Akbar’s court, and for the Rajput kingdoms that capitulated to him. Abu’l Fazl, the historian of Akbar's reign, mentions several specialist arms and armour centres in his survey of the provinces of the empire.

» Date: Watered steel and gold

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Textile

Textile

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Cloak

Design & Designing The embroidery on the cloak is typical of the 1590s. In particular, the metal thread has been couched down in a pattern of interlaced bands known as strapwork. This style of decoration, imitating carved fretwork or bands of leather, originated in France in the 1530s and became popular throughout Northern Europe by the end of the 16th century.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Casket

This casket was formerly suspected of being a 19th-century imitation, and perhaps the work of the famous Spanish ivory forger, Francisco Pallás y Puig (1859-1926). However, recent radiocarbon analyses on this object show that the ivory used was medieval, dating from the 9th century. It is very likely therefore to be an original object, and a pair with 301-1866, made at the same time for the same daughter of 'Abd al-Rahman III. The commission may have commemorated a significant event in her life, such as a marriage or birth of a son.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Mug

Commemorative Wares Commemorative wares were produced on a commercial scale from the 1780s and by the 1820s, transfer-printing on earthenware and porcelain had become a staple part of the pottery industry. Both transfer-printing on earthenware, begun in the 1750s, and cream-coloured earthenware, invented in the 1760s, allowed for increased speed and economies in production. But commemorative wares did not become viable on a large scale until the development of canals, the improvement of road quality, and the introduction of railways which allowed fragile products to be transported cheaply and efficiently.

» Date: Unknown (maker)

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Chalice

This example was made about 1700-1730 in Rome, the seat of the Papacy, and reflects a contemporary taste for richly decorated church silver. The ornament consists mostly of scrolls in high relief, with winged cherub heads on the bowl and Instruments of the Passion (objects associated with Christ's Crucifixion) on the base.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Dish

This plate could have been used in a church, or at the table of an aristocratic family. During the 16th century, the Italian nobility used a variety of elaborate and precious vessels for formal dining. Servants carried food to the table in decorative dishes, and the most splendid tableware was displayed on sideboards or credenze around the sides of the room.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Vase

The advent of the great world expositions in the 19th century (in which the Japanese government was actively involved) gave Japanese craftsmen an opportunity to excel in the production of sumptuous decorative objects, such as this vase. This particular example was bought directly from the Universal Exhibition at Amsterdam in 1883 from the Kiryu Kosho Kaisha (The First Japanese Manufacturing and Trading Company) which had been set up following Japan's great success at the 1873 Vienna World Exhibition in order to promote traditional Japanese craft industries. The vase was produced by the notable bronze-caster Suzuki Chokichi (1848-1919).

» Date: Kasson (designer) Suzuki, Chokichi, born 1848 - died 1919 (maker)

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Comb

Boxwood combs with elaborate carved and pierced decoration seem to have been fashionable accessories for both women and men from about 1400 until well into the 17th century. It is almost certain that many were made in France but they were probably produced much more widely. Like similar but more expensive Medieval ivory combs, many are decorated with short love inscriptions (in French) and love imagery such as pierced hearts, indicating that they were intended as appropriate gifts from a lover. Some were originally protected in a leather case that could also be decorated with a love theme. The side with narrow-spaced teeth looks remarkably like a modern nit comb and was undoubtedly used for the same purpose. This unusually small comb consists of two parts pivoted together to make an X-form when open. In form and size it is a conspicuous display of its maker's skill.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Stomacher

Alongside straw-plaiting and straw marquetry, a method of utilising straw in embroidery developed in the 17th and 18th centuries. Flattened straw splints were used as thread for traditional embroidery stitches, such as satin and stem stitch, couching and padded work. Straw couching can be seen in this mid-18th century stomacher. It consist of seven bands of straw splints couched to a linen band, where the straw splints are embroidered with silks in shades of blue and green in floral motifs. In the centre of each band is a six-petalled flower embroidered in silver thread with a sequin centre.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Jug

This type of pot-bellied drinking jug was common in Iran and Central Asia in the period 1400-1500. They were made in a wide variety of materials, including jade and precious metals. By the end of the century, they were also being made in Istanbul in silver gilt.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Crown

The crown is made in a style unique to Spanish goldsmiths' work of the period 1580-1610, a style inspired by the restrained architecture of Juan Herrera, who had worked on the Escorial Palace near Madrid for Philip II from about 1570. Metalwork of the period echoed his clean architectural lines, but craftsmen added enamel bosses and coloured pastes or gems for decoration.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Panel

The subject matter suggests that the embroidery was made in Tuscany; this saint is not well known outside Italy. St Verdiana (or Viridiana) led a holy life and may have served as a model for girls in whom modesty and religiosity were encouraged. She made a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela (Spain) before living the rest of her life as a hermit. Many miracles are ascribed to her, and in particular her name is invoked as protection against snake bites. Note the snakes that writhe in front of her. The official cult of this saint is recorded from 1553 when she was canonised. She does however appear in religious images before that date.

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Armchair

The V&A also owns a dining chair (Circ.237-1951) from the Scarisbrick set.

» Date: Pugin, born 1812 - died 1852 (designer)

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Grand piano

This piano was built in 1883 by John Broadwood & Sons for A.C. Ionides, a friend and client of William Morris, Sir Edward Burne-Jones and other Pre-Raphaelite artists. Kate Faulkner, who designed wallpaper for Morris & Co., decorated this instrument with gold and silver gesso to sketches made by Burne-Jones, so that it would match the interiors of Ionides' London house at 1 Holland Park. This piano was exhibited at the first Arts & Crafts Exhibition in 1888.

» Date: Burne-Jones, Edward Coley (Sir), born 1833 - died 1898 (designer) Faulkner, Kate (decorator) Broadwood, John, born 1732 - died 1812 (manufacturer)

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Piano

By about 1860, upright pianos were mass-produced, and John Broadwood & Son of London were one of Britain's leading manufacturers. Because they were so much smaller than grand pianos, these instruments were particularly useful in compact living spaces, ranging from terrace houses to yachts. This example was made in 1867 for the royal yacht Victoria and Albert, which had been launched twelve years earlier. It is carved with open fretwork, a popular form of furniture decoration at that time.

» Date: John Broadwood & Sons (maker)

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Railing

Original Location 1 Foley Place (previously 69 Queen Anne Street East, and referred to by 1928 as Foley House) was designed by James Wyatt to be his own home and office, and was almost certainly a show place for his skills and taste. Its contents were of sufficient quality that the V&A was offered a selection as a gift when the house was about to be demolished. The demolition was in order for George Val Myer to build Broadcasting House for his client, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). Creating a site of suitable size involved closing and demolishing the western part of Foley Place, once known as Queen Anne Street East and the remains later as Langham Street. The James Wyatt Foley House from which this section of ironwork was salvaged is not to be confused with a much larger house of the same name, which had been very prominent and on a site very near by, but which had been demolished in about 1815.

» Date: James Wyatt, born 1746 - died 1813 (designer)

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The Lighthouse in the Bay of Dublin, with His Majesty's Yacht 'Dorset'

This maritime scene shows the arrival of the Dorset, the royal yacht at the disposal of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in the Bay of Dublin. The 18th-century landmark of Poolbeg lighthouse, situated at the end of the North Bull wall of the Bay, is on the right. It is likely that Serres painted this work as a result of his visit to Ireland between 1787-88 and used it in his bid to acquire the royal position of Marine Painter to H.R.H. the Duke of Clarence which he was granted in 1789.

» Date: Serres, born 1759 - died 1825 (painter (artist))

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the 'Old Palace' at Bromley-by-Bow

Historical Associations By 1750 the house was no longer a private dwelling but the 'Old Palace School'. In 1894 it was demolished. This destruction caused an outcry, led by the artist and designer C.R. Ashbee, which inaugurated the organised preservation of London's architectural history.

» Date: 1606 (made)

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Ibanez Iceman; Mirror Ball Iceman; Cracked Mirror Iceman

It was customised to Stanley's design by Jeff Hasselberger, an employee of the American distribution arm of Ibanez. As Hasselberger recounts it, this guitar was designed to ‘damage some corneas as well as some eardrums’.

» Date: ca. 1979 -1980 (assembled)

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Guitar

Townshend's career with The Whospanned more than 40 years, during which time the band grew to be considered one of the greatest and most influential rock bands of all time. Townshend is the primary songwriter for the group, writing over 100 songs on the band's eleven studio albums, including the rock operas Tommy and Quadrophenia, plus dozens of additional songs that appeared as non-album track singles, bonus tracks on re-issues, and tracks on rarities compilations such as Odds and Sods.

» Date: S.12-1978

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Love Animating Galatea, the Statue of Pygmalion

People Henry Howard (1769-1847) originally aspired to be a history painter in the manner of Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792). Having become a friend of the sculptor and designer John Flaxman (1755-1826) while they were studying in Rome from 1791 to 1794, Howard continued to follow his friend's distinctive form of Neo-classicism on returning to Britain. He was also influenced by French Neo-classical artists, and tried to imitate their stylised rendering of classical scenes.

» Date: ca. 1802 (made)

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Cupid and Psyche; Mother and Child

Julia Margaret Cameron often cast female models in male parts. Here she enlisted a young girl as Cupid, the Greek god of love, who fell in love with the beautiful maiden Psyche. Psyche is sometimes depicted with butterfly wings since her name means ‘butterfly’ as well as ‘soul’ in Greek. For this picture Cameron perched a butterfly on Psyche’s head.

» Date: 1864 - 1865 (photographed)

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Tapestry

(Apollonius of Rhodes, The Voyage of Argo, trans. E.V.Rieu, London:Penguin Books, 1971.)

» Date: Troy, Jean Francois de, born 1679 - died 1752 (designer) Cozette, Pierre-François, born 1714 - died 1801 (workshop of, maker) Gobelins (manufacturer)

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Evening dress

This evening dress was designed with shoes of matching green silk.

» Date: Givenchy, Hubert de, born 1927 (designer) Rene Mancini (shoes, maker)

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Painted Crucifix

Painted Crucifix' such as this were commonly either placed behind the altar or suspended from the chancel arch. The iconography of the Crucifix was dominated by theological expressions of the incarnation and resurrection. On the terminals of 323-1895, Mary and St John each convey a different reaction to and express their grief at Christ's Crucifixion. They are exectued in a style close to that of Antonello. At the top of the crucifix, a pelican pecks at her breast to feed her young with her own blood; a symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on the cross whose body and blood similarly nourishes the celebrant during Mass.

» Date: 1490-1500 (painted)

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Tankard

Tankard

» Date: Unknown (production)

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Head of a girl

This painting is a fine example of mid-19th century portrait for its realist approach however the choice of representing the sitter in profile is rather unusual. It combines child portraiture with a touch of austerity enhanced by the black dress. This may result from an imitation of the first portraits which were engraved on coins and medals and had a mere commemorative function. The grisaille technique resemble a photograph which would eventually supplant portrait paintings in the following 20th century.

» Date: 1867 (painted)

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» Date: Robert, Paul, born 1865 - died 1898 (made)

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Guy Little Theatrical Photograph

‘Cartes de visite’, the size of formal visiting cards, were patented in 1854 and produced in their millions during the 1860s when it became fashionable to collect them. Their subjects included scenic views, tourist attractions and works of art, as well as portraits. They were superseded in the late 1870s by the larger and sturdier ‘cabinet cards’ whose popularity waned in turn during the 1890s in favour of postcards and studio portraits. This photograph comes from a large collection of ‘cartes de visite’ and ‘cabinet cards’ removed from their backings and mounted in albums by Guy Tristram Little (d.1953) who bequeathed them to the V&A. A collector of greetings cards, games and photographs, Guy Little was a partner in the legal firm Messrs Milles Jennings White & Foster, and the solicitor and executor of Mrs. Gabrielle Enthoven, whose theatrical collection formed the basis of the Theatre Collections at the V&A.

» Date: 1886 (photographed)

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Guy Little Theatrical Photograph

‘Cartes de visite’, the size of formal visiting cards, were patented in 1854 and produced in their millions during the 1860s when it became fashionable to collect them. Their subjects included scenic views, tourist attractions and works of art, as well as portraits. They were superseded in the late 1870s by the larger and sturdier ‘cabinet cards’ whose popularity waned in turn during the 1890s in favour of postcards and studio portraits. This photograph comes from a large collection of ‘cartes de visite’ and ‘cabinet cards’ removed from their backings and mounted in albums by Guy Tristram Little (d.1953) who bequeathed them to the V&A. A collector of greetings cards, games and photographs, Guy Little was a partner in the legal firm Messrs Milles Jennings White & Foster, and the solicitor and executor of Mrs. Gabrielle Enthoven, whose theatrical collection formed the basis of the Theatre Collections at the V&A.

» Date: ca. 1856-1921 (photographed)

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Birthday Cards

The cards also reflect the changing and age appropriate imagery chosen by greetings card companies as well as the choices made by those who selected and sent the cards to Jennifer as she grew older. Some of the earlier younger cards commonly show childish scenes often including illustrated baby animal characters, whereas later cards reflect perceived changes of interest for a growing girl such as images of flowers, fashions and music.

» Date: Academy cards (printer and publisher)

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